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How Has A Social Institution Affected You?

The social institution of education affects the individual in a number of significant ways. In order to get an understanding of these specific effects, one must take a step back and attempt to observe education’s fundamental purpose in society. The educational system shapes who we are as individuals in a multicultural society. This can be described as socialization. Since we as humans spend most of our time in school from birth through adolescence, we acquire many of our essential norms and values from the institution of education, specifically those impressed upon us by our teachers and peers. A basic sense of social order arises from these micro-level, face-to-face interactions, which happens to be the underlying theory of symbolic interaction. Personally, I can think of many specific values that I possess that I acquired in middle school from my teachers.
The institution of education also seemingly acts as a vehicle by which we as humans advance to new stages and uncharted territory (college, career, etc.) in life. The system and its structure, along with micro-level interactions, functions as a provocation of thought, retrospection, extrospection, introspection, and learning, among other things. Some are resistant to these things and desire to “buck the system,” so to speak, but I would say that for the most part I have embraced the effects of education, or at least was accepting of its structure and function. Moreover, the structure itself and the regulations therein contribute significantly to the aforementioned advancement and “shaping” of the individual. For example, almost all educational organizations have a patriarchal structure with a very specific, noticeable hierarchy (i.e. headmaster, principal, assistant principal, teachers, etc.), from which we as individuals develop a seeming desire and acceptance of patriarchy. Consequently, we implement patriarchy in the family at home as well as in other social institutions. Almost all the values and norms that I abide by can be traced back to the institution of education and the interactions therein.

The Ten Commandments of Effective Classroom Management

One of the biggest barriers to teaching and learning in any school environment is the lack of effective classroom management methods.  Failure to manage student behavior and learning at the classroom level is the main culprit for low student achievement and classroom behavior problems.

Young teachers, new to the teaching profession, may possess the necessary academic knowledge to teach their subject but often must learn classroom management skills on the job, which can make for a very challenging first few years in this career.  Often, help and advice is needed from veteran teachers and teacher coaches to help these new teachers through the first several months of their new career.

Here are 10 practical tips for new teachers to aid in building a successful classroom management strategy:

  1. Thou shall be called by no other name than “Mr.” or “Mrs” or “Ms.”  All too often, young teachers or even new teachers allow students to call them by their first names in an effort to relate to the students and be friendly with them.  Big mistake.  Students need an authority figure, not a friend.  They need to respect you before they can learn from you.
  2. Thou shall post and review your classroom rules as one of your very first orders of business.  This includes stating clear rules and clear consequences for violation of those rules.
  3. Thou shall follow through on enforcing all posted rules and consequences without delay, no matter how hard or inconvenient it may seem in the beginning.
  4. Thou shall not publicly ridicule or demean students in front of their peers.  |Far too often, in- experienced teachers try to exert power and influence over misbehaving students by publicly disciplining them.  While this may work in some circumstances, most of time, it will backfire.  This is because a teacher who engages students to ridicule them in front of their peers only creates an environment that encourages students to continually challenge teacher authority so they can win greater influence with their peers.  Whenever possible, teachers should pull students aside individually and assign consequences in this manner.  This demagnetizes the situation and isolates the student in a non-threatening way.
  5. Thou shall handle most issues in the classroom, without having to involve school administration.
    Over dependence on school administration to handle your classroom discipline issues actually diminishes a teacher’s authority within the classroom.  Only utilize school administration as a last resort or for those violations that require school administration involvement.
  6. Thou shall establish a contact with all parents early in the student-teacher relationship.
    This should be done at the beginning of the year.  Waiting to meet the parents when something is wrong sends the wrong message to parents and students, that you are reactive and not proactive.  During the first two weeks of school, make a focused effort on having a phone conversation with each parent.  Use the conversation to introduce yourself, communicate the goals of your class and offer your direct contact information to parents if they need assistance with their child.
  7. Thou shall develop a positive reward system for students who demonstrate positive behaviors.
    This is a behavior based performance plan, not an academic one.  Rewards can be simple and should be designed to recognize the students publicly in the classroom environment.  Far too often the 80% of students who never cause discipline problems are not recognized for their good behavior.  By creating positive rewards program in your classroom, you also motivate the chronically misbehaving students to follow suit and demonstrate positive behavior.  They too, crave this kind of attention from not only their peers, but their teachers.
  8. Thou shalt use a variety of delivery techniques to deliver learning content.
    The average attention span of a person in a classroom setting is about 20 minutes.  Therefore, vary your delivery method at least every 20 minutes or less.  For instance, you may start the class with a lecture delivery method, then transition into a multi-media presentation followed by an interactive question and answer session.  The goal is to maximize the amount of time the students are actively engaged in learning.  Greater and more meaningful engagement results in fewer discipline issues and behavior problems.
  9. Thou shall have fun with your class.
    If you are not having fun teaching, chances are your students are not having fun learning in your class.  Your enthusiasm for what you do transfers to all those around you, including your students.  Learn to have fun and learn the make your class fun to attend.
  10. Thou shall challenge students.
    Don’t be afraid to challenge your students.  Do you really want to bring out the best in them?  Don’t purposely make your class easy.  Purposefully make it hard, but doable.  Chances are, you won’ t only push them to be better students, you will push your self to be a better teacher.    Teach the basics of your subject, but don’t stop there.  A good teacher asks more questions than provides answers.  Delve into areas that challenge and pursue knowledge with a confident, “can do” attitude.  You and your students will take the journey together.

Homeschooling Kindergarten Kids

Homeschooling kindergarten kids can be an extremely rewarding experience. There are wonderful things to learn all around us especially outside of the classroom. Kindergarten children can learn the essential skills at home just as they do in public and private schools.

There are many benefits to homeschooling. Since your home is a safe controlled environment your children are at less of a risk of getting hurt or sick. By skipping the morning commute will allow your child a less hectic environment. Rushing around to get ready and braving the morning rush hour traffic is not a lesson that needs to be part of the curriculum. This method of schooling also allows for alternate working schedules at home.

In life, every minute is an opportunity to learn. At home there are endless ways to follow up on the kids’ lessons. Family activities and even vacations can be planned around what your child is learning. There is no better way to teach a child than to immerse them in the lesson and teach them in all possible ways.

The costs of homeschooling your kindergarten kids can be significantly less than that of sending your child to private or public school. It seems that these days public elementary schools are requiring uniforms. This can be a costly expense. By making your own school supplies like flashcards and calendars at home you can save money. There are also many free online resources for new ideas and printable activities.

The only real disadvantage to homeschooling is that your child does not have constant social interaction. This can be remedied by scheduling organized learning activities during play dates. Doing so will provide your kids with an opportunity to focus around their peers as well as socialize and play.

How to Choose the Right Book for GATE Preparation

GATE (Graduate Aptitude test in Engineering) is the straightforward entrance to the PSUs and the other higher technical organizations. It will be considered as one of the toughest examinations in India. Therefore, it needs the regular and continuous practice. However, don’t forget about health also. Be healthy and prepare for the GATE. Customary exercise is the supplement lucrative element whilst the time of preparation. Burden of the exam! In such critical circumstances, searching for the best GATE guide is the most arduous task. Well, you have already acquainted with this forged market. Numerous counterfeit shop owners are selling the textbooks. You have to search the best of them and most importantly the trustworthy.

Here is your optimal solution for all your dilemmas. Consult Nodia & Company, the acclaimed online GATE textbooks chandler in Jaipur. Having the profound experience, we have the peerless GATE study material along with the sample chapters and previous year solved papers.  Prepare with our books and get the elevation to your dreams to crack the GATE 2016. Preparation is the first phase and the self-assessment test is the second but, of high virtue. We have also an option to analyze yourself  by granting you the online mock test series.  We have the bunch of the authors of the renowned educational institutions across the nation and they have the profuse expertise of years in writing the books and the contents.

Books either the textbooks or the reference books are the noteworthy aspects of the GATE examination. An apposite study material with the apposite guidance is the paramount approach to clear the GATE exam. GATE 2016 will be held in January-February 2016. Therefore, you have enough time to initiate your preparation. Formulate the proper strategy and start preparation at the grand level. Focus on qualitative rather than quantitative. The niche of GATE is at the alpine level. Take it very seriously.

Considering the books as the most paramount aspect, start preparing for the GATE 2016 now. The month of July has commenced and you have to travel an elongated journey. So, its better to go on the path. We have assisted you in reducing your exam trauma by delivering you the optimum study-material with the sample chapters. GATE is the prolific exam with the two sections indulged with it. One is General Aptitude and the other one is the professional part. So, you have to prepare for the both giving the identical importance to them and have to purchase textbooks for both. Check our top-notch General Aptitude and Engineering Mathematics textbooks and get benefited by its fruitful content. Give the equivalent priority to the both chunks of GATE examination.

If you are thinking to join some renowned institute for GATE coaching, then perform the pertinent market research about various educational institutions and then pick the one, having the opulent experienced professors and it’s the eminent for its excellency in delivering the blue-chip lectures related to all the subjects of all branches of GATE. The mission of GATE is to identify the potential students who are enthusiastic to continue their higher level studies.  Be the one for whom GATE is searching and you will acquire all your targets.

R K Nodia is the best book for gate preparation. You can buy this book online from shop.nodia.

Is Technology Truly the Future?

Is Online Training as Valuable as Classroom Training?

The training industry is no exception to this technological takeover. While online learning and training is anything but a new concept – its roots date back to the late 90s – it is something that is constantly evolving. Over the past few decades, billions of US dollars have been allotted to online training and e-learning, with the majority of it progressing into mandatory training.  Businesses have learned that online training provides an easier route to deliver training on a massive scale, and have taken the concept and ran with it.

But is this form of online and e-learning truly as valuable or useful as the traditional classroom learning? According to the Public Agenda article titled “Not Yet Sold: What Employers and Community College Students Think About Online Education”, while 80% of employers in the United States state that online degrees and certificates are a great way to extend education to those that may not be able to afford or attend traditional classroom educations, their hiring methods seem to contradict this statistic. The employers encouraging students to pursue online degrees are the same employers stating they would prefer to hire employees with traditional education from an established university. In fact, the article further states that over half of all employers in the United States state they would be more likely to hire a job applicant with a traditional degree than an applicant who received their education online.

These shocking statistics extend beyond the mind of employers. When looking at online and e-learning from a student’s perspective, many students enrolled in online classes wish they could take fewer of them, clearly preferring the traditional classroom experience. Further, the Public Agenda article shows that 42% of students believe they actually learn less in online courses than when taking traditional classroom courses.  Additionally, over half of the students also believe that, while they are (in their opinion) learning less through online courses, the online courses actually require more work and a harder focus. This makes sense as a lot of online courses require the students to take on a lot of work on their own and make sure they allot certain times during the week to learn the lessons and study. In classroom learning, there are already dates and times scheduled to learn the material. Online learning requires much more focus and determination from the students. It is clear that though technology is continuously advancing, the majority of training providers and students agree that a more traditional learning format is best for their development needs.

MOOCs: Massive Open Online Courses

This is further proved with the case of MOOCs: “Massive Open Online Courses”. While MOOCs have received massive praise and popularity since their inception, they completion rate is quite horrifying. According to the StratEGgy article titled “Big (MOOC) Data”, out of all students signing up for MOOCs, less than 10% of them actually complete the course. Moreover, courses that result in some sort of degree or certificate have an even lower completion rate, less than 5%. These issues could be stemmed to the lack of motivation in completing a course online for a few reasons.

First, most MOOCs are offered free of charge. While this is clearly a huge benefit, especially in the United States where education is infamous for its expensive rates, it is also a detriment. If a student is not paying for the course, they may feel no obligation to actually complete it. If the student is paying thousands of dollars for a course and is unable to receive a refund, it becomes more of a priority to complete the education.

Additionally, many students will sign up for MOOCs while heavily involved in other activities. For example, students who are employed or lacking a lot of free time may initially think a MOOC is a great idea and later discover they simply have no time for the courses. Therefore, after listening to one or two lectures they decide to drop the course. All of these scenarios can explain the devastating completion rate witnessed in MOOCs, which clearly need to be addressed before the industry can move forward.

It is evident that though technology is increasing at a rapid pace, the training industry seems to be a bit timid overall in adapting to the innovations. Will this trend of technological neglect continue in the training industry or will trainers and students embrace the technological advances at their grasp and use it to empower their learning?

Online Children Picture Book Read Children Flip Book Online by Eklavya Publications

Eklavya Unviels Online Children Book Rusi & Pussy – Read children flip book online Rusi and Pussy by Eklavya Publications. Children will enjoy reading flip book online & learn new things by reading these books. An initiative of Eklavya Publication to spread education across using online media!!Eklavya is a non-profit, non-government organisation that develops and field tests innovative educational programmes and trains resource people to implement these programmes. It functions through a network of education resource centres located in Madhya Pradesh, India For over two decades, Eklavya has sought to relate the content and pedagogy of education – both formal and non-formal – to social change and the all-round development of the learner.

It evolves learner-centred teaching methodologies that foster problem-solving skills in children and encourage them to ask questions about their natural and social environment. This approach helps children become life-long self-learners. Eklavya looks at innovation holistically, which means that reforms in classroom practices are accompanied by reforms in examination systems, teacher training methods and the way schools are managed. It also means that learning spaces are extended beyond the school into the community. Eklavya has built up an extensive base of resource materials that includes educational literature, children’s literature, magazines, textbooks and other learning aids.

The beginnings In the early years of the decade of the 1980s, a group of educationists and social activists met to discuss the possibility of setting up an institute for educational research and innovative action in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. This group had a long association with a pioneering science education project that had started in 1972 and was then running in around 225 middle schools of Hoshangabad district of Madhya Pradesh. Known as the Hoshangabad Science Teaching Programme (HSTP), this project was a collaborative venture between two non-governmental organisations, Friends Rural Centre (FRC) and Kishore Bharati (KB), and the education department of the Government of Madhya Pradesh. HSTP had begun as a pilot project in 16 middle schools of two blocks of the district in 1972 and had been scaled up after the initial trials to cover all the schools of the district in 1978. The next step was to scale the project further.

The fledgling group wanted the new institute to take up this task as its immediate objective. But it envisaged a broader mandate of building up a partnership with the Madhya Pradesh government to improve school education. Under this mandate, the institute would take up innovative experiments in other subjects of the school curriculum from the primary to the higher secondary stage, assimilate the learnings from these projects into the curriculum and textbooks and look for ways to scale up these projects to cover all the schools in the state. The focus would thus stretch beyond the purely academic aspects to include support systems – teacher training packages, extra-curricular packages, administrative reforms, etc – needed to make these curricular packages working realities in schools. In short, the institute would evolve systems for macro-level implementation of micro-level educational experiments and act as a catalyst at the state, district, block and school levels to make the mainstream education system more receptive to innovations. However, while working with the government, it would remain autonomous in its functioning. More importantly, while operating at the state level, it would not be an urban-based institute but would function through a network of field centres situated in small towns and casbahs of the state.

Language learning and the impact of Technology in students

Technology has been elemental in educational and literary development in the present era. Among a number of compelling aspects where the impact of technology is greatest, language learning emerged as a substantial one. Especially Information Technology transformed to an integral part of the learning system that assist language education at top educational institutions. In global standard institutions such as International Baccalaureate Schools, where foreign language classes are of paramount importance, the use of devices and audiovisual assistance is yielding better results. IT and computers are proven impeccable in learning language offering rich experience to enhance their knowledge. Using technology for learning, students gain better motivation and self-esteem to learn.

The traditional methods of language learning are limited and are more dependent on personal endeavor. Students have to learn directly from teachers and practice with friends. Practicing of a newly learned language or a language that is being learned is the toughest part, as students do not find reliable peer to practice. Technology can render to this paucity of human peers for language learners by offering them excellent audiovisual aids. In fact, learners can utilize technology platforms for better learning experiences than learning with people. Using software and applications the coursewares could be repeatedly played and used at convenience. They can be used any time and at any place, offering the students a larger flexibility to learn.

The use of digital multimedia in language learning is much effective. Apart from increasing the access to learning, multimedia creates stronger memory links than learning through text. As they are associated with video, images, sound as well as text, they are more engaging to senses simulating better learning and education. Facilities such as instant playback, recoding, repetition, quick and easy access offers a superior quality of learning.

Internet has been substantial in language learning. The real life videos such as news, documentaries and reports help to grasp a language more easily to be used practically. In addition, newsletter, magazine and online articles provide massive materials for learning any language. Internet is also imperative to connect learners to actual speakers of the language. They can communicate real time with persons from other part of the world who speak the language as their mother tongue. Emails, chat rooms, social networks and other platforms offer extensive amenities to learners to connect with real life persons.

Although technology is imperative in language learning, it cannot replace the human touch. It should be used as a platform to facilitate learning rather than using it as the primary tool. Moreover, technology tools need to improve to offer better learning amenities to student.

Time Management For College Athletes – How To Manage Your Time Well

You have completed your high School, cleared your college entrance examination and selected the University of your choice to attend. Being an athlete you have the privilege of obtaining a scholarship.

The new college campus makes you very excited and nervous and hesitant to take the next step. First you meet your coach and the concerned person tells you to report for practice early next morning.

After meeting the coach you proceed straight to the class room. On the first day it was not so bad, only an introduction to the course and subject plan and not assignments and formal lectures.

On the next day you get up early to start practice, fully refreshed and all set to begin coaching. The coach gives a strenuous workout, but it is natural for any coach to give the beginner a tough time.

After completing your training you head to your dometry to get ready for the class. A shock awaited you when you stepped into your class room. The professor who seems very nice was a terrible nightmare. The professor asked the students to write an essay within 1500 words with small deadline, and you assumed you could complete it. The next class was worse.

After completing the class, you meet the other athletes on the field and make friends and everyone was busy discussing about the party that night and inviting each other. Of course to make an impression and to have their approval you oblige.

At the party the thought of the essay with the 1500 words keeps lingering in your mind. You think you still can handle the deadline which is not very short.

At the end of the party you retired to your dometry very tired from exhaustion of the day there is yet something else awaiting. Your roommate is celebrating another party in the room with loud music hindering you from studying or sleeping, making the whole room a total mess.

You wake up stressed and tired from the previous night. You land up late for practice on the field .It was the most terrible performance in you whole life time and added to that the thought of the 1500words essay comes back to your mind. The coach was very annoyed at you for the terrible performance and he insisted that you remain and clean up the locker room.

Finally after completing the cleaning of the locker room you rush to the first class of the day though late. As a punishment the Professor does not permit you into the classroom because you are late.

The terrible thing was that the professor was mentioning some hints regarding the essay to be written. You decide to fail will result in the cancellation of the scholarship.

There may be no way out but still this is very common for college athletes. Advanced time management skills are needed for college students Getting admitted in colleges is very easy. But the difficult part is trying to cope with the extra curricular activities without ignoring your studies.

Management of time for studies and co-curricular activities for college students is very difficult but for an athlete it is even more difficult because he has to undergo stressful training session and even cope up with his studies in order to get their scholarships.

Due to the new levels of competition, there is a sudden increase in the responsibility of college students. They have all started training harder. You could have been the best athlete in high school, but in college many athletes will beat your record. Hence you will have to study and train harder to keep fighting.

Some tips for management of time for college athletes:

Study time should be allotted in your schedule because it is not as easy as studying in high school. It is a lot harder in college due to limited time.

Speak to your professor about your time table and they might consider in shifting you to a different class with the same subject on different time.

By developing a good time management skills, you can train, play matches, study, socialize and attend to your personal life activities with enough time for each.

Charity Aims to Increase Technology Education

iGotITtoo, a charity that works to bring technology education, training, and resources to underprivileged communities, just received a $250,000 donation from Google, Inc. Charitable Giving Fund of the Tides Foundation to assist in expansion and implementation of its mission. The organization is “dedicated to ending digital inequality in economically underserved communities throughout New York.”

iGotITtoo means “I’ve got information technology, too.” The charity was founded in Brooklyn in 2007 around the idea that in today’s society, one which is largely dependent on technology, socioeconomic status creates a gap among people who have access to technology and the skills to utilize it, and those who do not. Technology has become an important tool used in education, and individuals or even schools and entire communities that do not have access to technology or proper education on how to use it can fall behind and miss opportunities for advancement.

Founders of the charity, Santana Kenner and Claire Chiesa, first began their work by offering free computer classes to Brooklyn community members who expressed concern over their lack of technology education. Now, around thirty trained volunteers work with iGotITtoo. Each volunteer teaches two or three classes and labs per week at the charity’s three locations—Atlantic Terminal Community Center, Saratoga Village Community Center, and Lafayette Gardens Community Center.

Santana Kenner, CEO, said that technology can increase education as well as economic opportunities. iGotITtoo plans to expand to the entire city of New York in 2011, in attempt to provide computer access to all city communities and to stress the importance of technology education in the future.

Kindergarten Testing Study System Review

Kindergarten Test Study System publishes a series of 7 red folders containing test prep materials that get children ready to take the OLSAT test for admissions to gifted and talented or GATE programs. Their materials offer 177 practice questions, covering all sections of the OLSAT. It sells for $60 + shipping.

Here is what I like about their product:

*It is comprehensive. Each red folder covers a different subtest from the OLSAT, plus there is one practice test that mixes the questions up. The practice questions range from easy to hard (just like the test itself).
* The red folders are a mixed blessing. If you aren’t terribly organized, you risk getting material from one folder mixed into a different folder (that’s what happened to me). On the plus side, you can buy this study system with another family and split up the folders for a few weeks and then trade off, making this a very affordable investment.
* The price – $60 plus shipping. This seems reasonable compared with other test prep products on the market. If you decide to buy this, you might want to share it with a friend or two. As I mentioned above, it would be easy to split up the folders and trade off.
* Each question comes with a script that the parent can follow when asking the question, along with a helpful way to explain the right answer if your child gets it wrong.
* The questions accurately reflect the types of questions that are on the actual test so practicing with them should be an effective way to prepare your child.

Here is what I don’t like about the product:

* The 7 red folders – personally, I got the materials in the folders all mixed up, but maybe you are more organized than I am.
* The questions use black and white clip art that is boring and unattractive. It gets the job done, but is fairly dull. On the other hand, the real test uses boring black and white art, so this is good practice.

Things to Note When Choosing a Kindergarten for Your Child

The strength of a high tree lies in its roots. It will stand as long and as firm as its roots.

We all know this but we often forget this very fact in case of the early educations oh our children. We are always focused on the higher education of the child but we often take their early education as taken for granted. It is a very common belief that a good college is very much important for greater success in the careers. And yes, this is somewhat true as well. But we always forget that path to any good institution goes through early schooling of the children. If the education roots of the children are strong and their conceptual understanding is enhanced then they can acquire any success in their future. This is where the role of a kindergarten comes in place.

To choose the best kindergarten in Dubai you need to identify your needs first. You need to ensure that you know precisely what your youngsters will be learning, and who they will be gaining from.

Now when you know what you want the second thing you need to do is research. For that there are a number of websites available which provide the reviews of various kindergarten and preschools in Dubai. Also, you can take the opinion of the parents. By doing this you will clearly get to know the fair information about the school.

Now when you have collected enough information about kindergarten or preschool you must also consider the following points before choosing a kindergarten in Dubai-

Transparent Fee Structure:

You must be very sure about the fee structure. There are always some overheads which you get to know later. Knowing them initially is the best thing to do as it is always disappointing to pay more than what you had expected.

Staff:

only a good trainer can deliver good results. You need to be ensured about the faculty of the school. You must also keep a close watch on the staff of the preschools during your initial visits.

Facilities:

You should ensure that the play school is neat and clean. Presence of proper greenery would be a plus. Classrooms needs to be of proper size with proper ventilation. Furniture should be carefully designed for the children. By doing this you can ensure the comfort of your little one.

Curriculum and policies:

Does the nursery have a wide range of activities? Does it have many age-related toys? What curriculum does it follow?

By going through above checklist you will be able to select a better kindergarten for your children.

Group Work vs. Whole Class Activity

Introduction
As a primary school teacher I tend to use different kinds of strategies to facilitate learning among students. I often switch between whole-class activities and group work, depending on the nature of task and the availability of resources. I use whole class strategy to introduce or summarize a lesson while group work for its development and extension. My students feel comfortable with both strategies as a whole-class feedback phase after a session of group work provides a smooth transition to the learning process.  Both strategies are effectual and successful at one time or the other. Teachers distribute their time between interacting with children individually, in groups and as a whole class (Maurice Galton, 1999). In this paper, I will first introduce the two strategies under discussion, and then examine their advantages and disadvantages. Afterwards, I would attempt to suggest different ways for the effective management of either strategy. The objective of this paper is to determine which teaching strategy of student organisation works best while performing different classroom tasks.

Overview of Teaching Strategies

First I would like to comment upon whole class activities. Organising the whole class as one group is a traditional teaching strategy. Using this strategy, teachers organize students in such a way so as to make all of them participate together in some kind of an activity.

On the other hand, group work requires students to work collaboratively either in pairs or in groups. As compared to whole class, group work is a relatively new teaching strategy which is used commonly in many schools in the west.

Advantages of Whole-Class and Group Activities

 Moving on to the advantages of whole-class activities, an important aspect of whole-class discussion is the bonding together of the whole group. Moreover, the larger the group, more variety there is in the ideas, opinions and experiences which can contribute to the learning process. Whole class discussion generally encourages fluency and a meaningful exchange of ideas among the participants.  It also ensures teacher’s access to all students. It particularly works well when it is used to explain new ideas and concepts. It can also be used to play some motivating and lively games. In such games the students are required to sit together and play various language development games which are full of fun. Furthermore, it is thought of as a time efficient strategy.

Whole class activity is also widely used at the end of any lesson to summarize what has been taught or done in that particular lesson. It is especially useful and time efficient when it is used in question answer sessions to evaluate students understanding of a topic. Hilary Cooper (1993) suggested that students learn more from whole class teaching which involves explanations and questioning techniques.

Group activities, on the other hand, increase student involvement in class activities. Students in groups talk and communicate more readily with each other. They learn how to correspond and share ideas. Secondly, group activities encourage students to learn through discussions. Students, first, weigh the pros and cons of a given situation with each other and then try to find a logical solution to the problem. Thirdly, group activities, encourage students to work in collaboration with one another. With practice, group members realize that until and unless all put in their best, they would not be able to complete the given task proficiently. Eventually, they learn to respect and value each others’ contribution. From my experience as a primary teacher, I have observed that such kinds of group activities ensure maximum participation from all group members.

Another suggested situation in which group seating arrangement can be useful is, sharing of resources. When resources have to be shared, group arrangement allows 3-5 children to easily  reach and use one centrally placed set of resources, such as pens, glue, paints etc.

Similarly, if the objective of a lesson is reinforcement of lessons taught earlier, than the teachers should arrange the students in small ability groups. This would enable the teacher to help those students who need reinforcement while the rest could do an extension activity to further their understanding of the concept.

Depending on the nature of the task, in a primary classroom, if a teacher wants to work as well as move within small groups of students, then group seating should be planned. As per Nigel Hastings, there is consistency between what the teacher is trying to do, what the pupils are expected to do, the kind of interaction that is intended and the configuration of the furniture. Thus, group seating seems to be a useful way to organise primary classrooms.

Another benefit of group work is that it enables students, who are learning English as a second language, to develop their listening and speaking skills. Many teachers of English language are of the opinion that the primary benefit of group work is that it provides practice in speaking and listening.

Areas of Concern

 Organising the whole class as one cluster is a useful teaching strategy but it also has its shortcomings. For instance, its efficiency and effectiveness depends on the level of attentiveness of the students. If the lesson is not interesting enough, it fails to capture the students’ attention. Another disadvantage of this activity is that only a limited number of students participate when they are organised as whole class. The shy or the passive ones prefer to be quiet while the others actively participate.

Even though group work forms a fundamental part of teaching, often both teachers and students are unenthusiastic about it. On the one hand, teachers feel apprehensive about loosening their hold over the students while on the other, students have reservations because unlike whole class activity, they are expected to think and express themselves.

Discussion and Analysis

Now, this paper will attempt to discuss situations in which whole-class teaching can be used effectively. It can be of assistance in all subjects: English, Urdu, Science, Mathematics, Social Studies. Nigel Porteus, in his article “Whole Class Teaching” suggested that teachers should incorporate some amount of whole-class teaching in their delivery of lessons. According to him, whole-class instruction can be very efficient especially while teaching Mathematics because it requires less time on management functions and provides more time for developing mathematics concepts.

Similarly, teachers should also be encouraged to use this strategy while doing eliciting or brainstorming in the beginning of any lesson. For example, while doing a whole class activity named shared writing in the English lesson, the teacher acts as a facilitator and writes down the students’ responses on the board.

Moving on to group work, I would like to suggest  that teachers should be clear about the objectives and the methodology of the lesson for which group work has been planned. They should give clear instructions to students and prepare resources well in advance. If resources are not ready then group work can not be carried out competently. Similarly, if enough resources are not available then students tend to fight over them, causing a disciplinary problem. Therefore, planning before hand and clear instructions are one of the crucial things that a teacher should keep in mind before conducting group activities.

Another thing that a teacher has to keep in mind before conducting group work is to properly train the students. Group centred classrooms tend to be noisy. Teachers should make the students aware of the need to maintain a controlled noise level. Students can be motivated by having a competition within the groups. The group that observes most of the rules would win. Similarly, students can be asked to lower their voice level while doing discussions. Otherwise the other groups would get a chance to take advantage of their ideas. This would motivate them to work quietly.

Group members should also be encouraged to support each other. They should be reminded that If they do not help each other, the quality of their work is going to be affected e.g. if one student has to do the writing then others can help with spellings and ideas. Teachers should encourage students to equally contributewithin groups. To meet this purpose, group members can be assigned different roles. One can be the “encourager”. The encourager could ask the others to speak clearly, remind others about turns etc. Another student could be the “reporter”. His/her duty would be to ask others about ideas, introduction etc. A “manager” reminds about the time left and makes sure that the group comes to a decision. Lastly, the “recorder” will record the results being dictated by the other members.

Keeping in view all the above mentioned points, I would like to propose that teachers should integrate whole class with group teaching strategies for a smooth delivery of lessons.

Movin’ On Up: Reading Education as Social Mobility in Great Gatsby Quotes and Jane Eyre

Pink Floyd was wrong. Very wrong. So wrong in fact that its famous lyric, “We don’t need no education,” is an assault on the ears of anyone who considers themselves to be grammar aficionados.

As ironically implied by its error-laden sentence, Pink Floyd was definitely wrong about needing education. They needed it and we need it too, especially that now-a-days, a bachelor’s degree is often a rudimentary ticket to entry for low-level jobs. In fact, with the current economic funk sending more and more people back to higher education, it is no stretch to suggest that our society certainly values education as a way to move up in the world—or at least hold onto wherever one is currently.

Our value of education and the importance it holds is readily reflected in our literature. Authors often use characters’ educational training as a plot technique to move them beyond their lowly status and succeed. In that way, education is fundamental to the American dream, the individualistic doctrine that says if you work hard enough and learn hard enough, you will move up in the world. Education allows social mobility; it empowers the lower castes of society to pull themselves up by their proverbial bootstraps and make something of themselves.

No clearer literary example of this can be found than in Jay Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald’s self-reinventing tragic hero for which his classic novel The Great Gatsby is named. Gatsby—whose real name is Gatz—comes from a poor, Midwestern family with little inheritable potential for greatness. So he does what any red-blooded American does: he fakes it until he makes it. He takes a page out of Great Expectations and starts hanging out with the cooler people.

Though he doesn’t boast of it, the dude went to Oxford, only for five month. . Name recognition being everything, his new social-elite status is built on that fake education, which others use to buoy his credibility as someone of worth. A look at some Great Gatsby quotes, especially when Tom tries to discredit Gatsby’s education as to demean him, shows what value it has.

Never mind that his past catches up with him, or the fact he was murdered by an uneducated auto mechanic—the tiny Oxford detail encapsulates what is at the heart of the novel. The level of education distinguishes between who is upper class and who is lower class, and by the logic, the higher your education is, the higher your status will be. Even if it ends up being a total lie, thus implying the American Dream is shoddily built on arbitrary distinctions like higher education and unlikely to withstand any intense economic weather or destruction.

Another excellent literary example of education serving to buoy a character—whether it is an authentic one or not—is Jane Eyre. Jane Eyre’s education is mainly aesthetic feminine crafts—sewings, music, perhaps some foreign language—but it still allows her social mobility and money as a orphaned young woman. He education is her safe haven from her awful relatives, and eventually allows her to become a de facto teacher, governess and then wife of a super rich guy. Granted, the plotline is a bit more complex and convoluted than that, especially with the novel’s gothic elements and the crazy old pyromanic lady in the attic, but Jane Eyre’s formal education is what got the ball rolling.

While it may no longer be the case that education is the solve-it-all for society’s lower citizens, it has definitely been mythologized and painted that way—a necessary stepping stone to a high status and a better life.

Education In A Culturally Diverse Society – Journal

Education in a Culturally Diverse Society

By Michele Bennett (Winans)

The history of American education provides a development of the needs for multicultural education. In the many years of social movements, we have seen many reasons for the growth towards more multicultural inclusion. Survival of the 1960’s social reforms will assist in directing our educational communities toward a close reexamination of educational programs and the increasing need for redirection in our teacher preparations for such a change. What will need to be done to be prepared for the next change in history, multicultural education?

Social movements of the 1960’s gave attention to the need for changes in our education systems with regards to equality in education. Civil rights pushed our society towards some forms of equality but now we have greater issues because of the increase in other cultural groups in the United States. These movements were a mere stepping stone towards the changes that are now needed towards an overall multicultural education curriculum. The goals of our education systems are to provide all children with an equal educational opportunity. This has not always been the case, yet we are making great strides toward being inclusive to all students. Our countries educational community recognizes a natural pattern of progression to incorporate a positive attitude about developing a strong multicultural education system at this time in history.

We can go as far to describe the United States as a cultural landscape because we have so many different cultures, ethnics, and religious groups making up our culturally diverse society. We have always been referred to as the ‘melting pot’ and even more so now with such a diverse society. Never before in history have we had such diversity and genuine opportunities to learn and develop knowledge of such cultures. With these new diversities comes the responsibility of educating all people with educational equality. Included with this responsibility are required changes in our methods of thinking and approaching education in such a way that all people are respected. More intercultural understanding and an awareness of social and global knowledge will need to be actively incorporated into our educational curriculums. Not only is knowledge of other cultures required but also creative and critical thinking will be developed to create new policies involving equalities in multicultural education.  Change in our school history has not been that easy because not all people or even educators have been open to changes.

An educator must be trained to recognize, accept, and even value the cultural differences of their new students. Educators will have to be able to overcome obstacles involved with cultural diversities. Beliefs will need to be incorporated into their educational philosophies that all students are able to learn regardless of their gender, social class, and ethnic or cultural diversities. Our school systems need to make strides towards creating more equality in our schools with some positive feedback from teachers and students. A possible step towards the change to multicultural education is recognizing our own biases, prejudices, and assumptions about other cultures in the world around us. As educators, we will need to attend some further training about diversities and the development of positive attitudes regarding multicultural education and its connection to some peace and harmony amongst our differing cultures.

All people deserve to be educated on equal terms. Even though our educational system has developed through time to include many situations, and they may not be completely prepared to completely change over to a multicultural education curriculum, we are making progress toward this phase in our history of American education. Professional development training of future educators as well as present educators will certainly move us towards a possible acceptance of multicultural education.  Let us look to the future with eyes wide open and also with our minds completely open. Our world is changing, so let us as educators embrace our opportunity to educate the world.

Disorderly Classroom Behavior Lowers Student Achievement

Education is one of life’s most important goals. In fact, learning is a lifelong process that doesn’t stop after graduating from any level of formal schooling. Inside the educational system, teacher’s play a crucial role in building classroom discipline, transferring not only knowledge and skills but values as well. The classroom is the battleground where students overcome obstacles that helps them shape their character as well as enhance their problem-solving skills. Therefore, it is very important for an educator to control the learning environment so that desired learning outcomes would be met.

A disorderly classroom can affect student performance in many ways. First, a physical environment that is noisy, cluttered, and chaotic is not conducive to learning. Students easily get distracted by external stimuli such as noise ; hence, teachers must regulate noise at minimal levels. Second, unnecessary activities or movements can also be distracting such as students walking around the room. Subjects that involve reading and mathematics need full attention so silence is required in the classroom.

Teachers play a crucial role in promoting effective classroom management When a classroom is noisy, students morale are negatively affected. The students perceive that the teacher is incompetent in maintaining discipline inside the class. Although many students resent authority figures such as teachers, they do look up to them for supervision. Hence, an undisciplined class reflects much on the leadership of the teacher inside the class. For this reason, a teacher must impose rules and establish routines for effective classroom management. These rules must be contained in a discipline plan that will be communicated to all students clearly. Rules help students feel safe because they want something consistent.

Another effective approach that teachers can use in building classroom discipline is establishing procedures. Students who perform daily routines are more disciplined because they need to follow a structured set of activities. Behind such activities are mini-goals that contribute to the overall peace and order inside the learning environment. Furthermore, activities or tasks become more efficient as students become more efficient in functioning. A set time for certain tasks helps a lot in minimizing boredom as well as other unnecessary movements. This is the reason why even class breaks are regulated and monitored so disruptions are kept at minimal levels.

When a classroom is orderly, student performance is enhanced. How? Students who stick to routines develop self-discipline and become responsible adults. They understand the concept of deadlines and strive to finish a task within a time frame. Also, they begin to understand the value of focus because distractions can sidetrack them from finishing a task. These small habits can mean a lot as they progress to tasks that presents more challenge. Overall, the teacher must always ensure that classroom discipline is imposed at all times. They must keep in check disorderly classroom behavior by following the advice given. Rules, procedures , and routines are tools for building classroom discipline. These tools make learning more positive and promotes responsibility. In the end, the students would be very grateful for these learnings can be applied even to adult life.

How Can Technology Improve Education?

To show the effect of technology on education, Don Kenzek, CEO of the International Society for Technology in Education uses an analogy of technology in the medical field.

“If in 1970 you had knee surgery, you got a huge scar,” he said. “Now, if you have knee surgery you have two little dots.”

Advances in technology have allowed teachers to move beyond traditional methods of education, which primarily rely on the use of text-books and verbal instruction. At one time, a student’s only exposure to technology was found in a basic computer class. Now, technology has enabled the creation of various teaching and learning tools that can “demonstrate concepts, assign projects, and assess progress.”

The drawback with incorporating technology into education, though, is hesitation by U.S. schools to utilize new educational tools and methods. Other nations around the world are looking for ways to integrate technology and education, while we are still questioning whether this merge should take place at all.

Kenzek points out the following 8 ways in which technology has proved effective in instruction and student progress.

1.   Improved simulation and models can assist teachers in demonstrating difficult concepts and specifically help students that are visual learners.

2.   Global learning exposes students to other cultures and puts them in touch with other people around the world.

3.   Virtual manipulatives allow students to experiment with unfamiliar concepts and ideas.

4.   Probes and sensors allow students to collect data, compute statistics, and analyze results quickly and efficiently.

5.   A more efficient assessment of student progress can be made and monitored with new forms of technology.

6.   Storytelling and multimedia encourage teamwork and excites students.

7.   E-Books create a level of ease, convenience and visualization that isn’t available with standard print textbooks.

8.   Epistemic games put students in real-world situations and train them to use innovative thinking.

New technology has helped to make positive changes in education by rapidly advancing instruction methods, which allow for greater student retention and progress.

Comic for Education

Comic book is getting more popular nowadays. Children and also adults like reading it. Modern comic book was inadvertently born by two employees at the Eastern Color Printing Company who collected a number of popular newspaper comic strips and arranged them into a tabloid-sized magazine (Wright, 2001). Since 1933, the year when the two employees gave birth to the modern comic, comic has become more and more popular.

Music and film have been commonly used as media in  learning process. But comic has not. Although comic is relished by many people of different ages, hundreds of people believe that comic is not good for children. Most comics, indeed, contain bad things that parents are worry if their children will imitate the bad attitude they find in them.

But actually, comic had been used as learning media. Robert Thorndike partnered with DC Comics and Harold Downes created a language arts workbook that starred Superman (Sones, 1944). American educators also designed comics-supported curriculum. But it did not take long time. People started believing that comic was responsible to juvenile delinquency. Others believed that comics impeded reading comprehension, imagination, and caused eyestrain (Dorrell, Curtis, & Rampal, 1995). Comic was also accused as an enemy of other reading (Dorrell, Curtis, & Rampal, 1995). Because of the bad assumption on comic, comic could not be found anymore in the classroom. This continued until the  1970’s. Here are some educators who brought comic to the classroom again; Richard W. Campbell integrated comics into a fourth grade reading program (Koenke, 1981); Robert Schoof found comics useful in the language arts, particularly in teaching dialect and characterization (Koenke, 1981); In trade journals, educators Kay Haugaard (1973) and Constance Alongi (1974) recommended using comic books with reluctant readers; and Bruce Brocka (1979) enlisted comic books as a defense against a new enemy to literacy: television. Several next years, comic got its place in education. Neil Williams replaced his traditional ESL course books with  Calvin and Hobbes comic books at the American Language Institute of New York University (1995) and many librarians finding comic books useful in luring teenagers away from their televisions and video games (Bacon, 2002).

According to Gene Yang (2003) comic has five strengths to use in education. Those strengths are:

1.  Motivating

Hutchinson(1949) found as the result of his experiment that 74% of  teachers surveyed found comics “helpful for motivation” (p. 244), while 79% claimed comics “increased individual participation” (p. 244). One teacher even complained that comic books made “learning too easy” (Hutchinson, 1949, p. 244). DC Comics, Thorndike, and Downes also

found that comic could motivate students when they  introduced their Superman language arts workbook to classrooms. They found that the students had “unusual interest” and it, as written, “presented the annoying difficulty of causing the youngsters to complete a whole week’s task in one evening” (Sones, 1944, p. 233).  Those experiment results show us that comic is really able to motivate students during the learning process.

2.  Visual

As comic is composed by pictorial and other images, it is a fundamentally visual medium. And this is Sones’ (1944) experiment which brings him in a conclusion that comics’ visual quality increases  learning: Sones divided four hundred sixth- through ninth-grade students into two groups, balanced in terms of both school grade and intelligence. To  the first group he presented a story in comics, with both pictures and text; to the second, only the text. Afterwards, each group was given a test on the content of the story. One week later, the process was reversed: the first group given the text version and the second group the comics. Both  groups were tested again. In the end, Sones (1944) concluded that “a strong trend in favor of the picture continuity was indicated by the two sets of results” (p. 238). On the first test, the first group scored significantly higher than the second group. On the second test, the second group showed a significantly higher improvement than the first. Sones inferred from this that children in the first group had neared saturation after reading the comics, so were unable to learn much more from the text. Those in the second group did not reach saturation until after they had reread the material in comics. Sones (1944) noted that students of “low and middle intelligence levels” (p. 239) were especially helped by comics’ visual quality.

3.  Permanent

Using comic as learning media is much different with using film or animation. Although film and animation are also visual media but they are, can be said, watched fleeting. Comic, in other hand, is permanent. Plainly, if students don’t understand a scene of a film or animation, they cannot repeat the unknown scene. But we can do this if we use comic.

4.  Intermediary

Karl Koenke (1981) suggests that comics can lead students towards the discipline of reading, especially those who don’t enjoy reading or have a fear of failure. Comic can be the first step of enjoying reading. Haugaard (1973) said that comic is able to transform her reluctant reader son into an avid fan of Jules Verne and Ray Bradbury.

5.  Popular

We can say that our students are steeped in popular culture. Timothy Morrison, Gregory Bryan, and George Chilcoat (2002) suggest that, by incorporating popular culture into the curriculum,  teachers can bridge the separation many students feel between their lives in and out of school. Comic is a part of popular culture. We know that known-well movies like Spiderman  and Batman  are produced from the comic. This will succeed the learning process.

Non Profit Organizations Takes an Important Place in Social Service in our Society


The main aims of nonprofit organization or non governmental organization is to help better quality of life in all its realms through community mobilization, participatory governance based on sustainable natural resource management. For profit or non-profit organizations, begins by means of well crafted undertaking as well as vision statements. For this NPO Fundraising had become one of the major sources of finances intended for Indian non profit organizations. These non profits in India need to raise funds for their operating costs and in maintenance of programs to facilitate people and the environment. One of the most significant aspects of doing NGO fundraising is the association between people. These non profit earnings are retained by the organization for its future provision of programs and services to people who are in need.

Now-a-days non profit organizations need to establish their web-presence to present the goals of the organization in regard of the projects which had been completed undertaken by their NPO or NGO and the projects that are currently running by them and success rate of those projects have to placed by these non profit organizations so that can probably attract more people to support your organization. This helps in getting donations, building relationships between these non-profit organizations and donors which are very important so that these non profit organizations can help to bring out the people from poverty. And Programs like supporting child rights, natural resource management, tribal development, environment education, social education for freedom of choice, scholarship / stipend are the most important aspects from which are to be solved by these volunteer organizations. And donating to a non-profit charity does not essentially have to engage spending a huge amount of funds but they do usually require manpower.

It is mandatory for the non profit corporation to make use of their revenues, since all these operating expenses are to serve in the public interest. This is one of the reasons why volunteers present in nonprofit organization are not salaried but they may often receive appreciation for their services, as many non-profit organizations make an endeavor to convey gratitude to their volunteers. And these volunteers are people who take care of all the social welfare programs and take participations in social services. In India there are no. of volunteer organizations taking participation in social service activities through which poverty in India can removed and are progressing for having better future in developing good citizens and to build a good environment.

How Can Technology Help in the Classroom?

Technology is reaching out to the farthest level in any field. Its importance and benefits cannot be denied. The field of Education has also not remained untouched with its affect. Technology these days has got a major role to play in classrooms and has drastically elevated the level of engagement in students. It is being adopted by teachers to improve classroom setting and help their students to inculcate learning a notch above as compared to regular teaching methods. Below listed are some the ways that highlight the advantages and potential help that technology has granted in Education:

  • Mark an improvement in Technical Skills: This helps the students to try their hands on various technological advancements. Skills like research, typing, and communicating through technological devices are some of the notable advantages of technology. This way, students feel confident in applying these skills at a much advanced level keeping a pace with this ever-changing world.
  • Great Motivation: Paper and pen are regarded as a traditional and boring means of teaching. When technology enters the scene a remarkable zeal and motivation becomes apparent among the students. Familiarizing the students with functioning of new gadget, e-books usage and giving lessons on how to use these tools help in increasing motivation level among the students. By use of technology, teachers can help the students in learning crucial skills by giving them arithmetic assignments, essays writing, and sciences assignments etc.
  • Boon for students with Special Needs: This was possibly regarded as the key purpose of launching technology in the field of Education. Earlier, it had become a challenge to deal with education queries of children with specific needs. Technology has now resolved it to a great extent.  For instance, students who have hearing disability can be taught with the help of visuals or written form of lecture. As per the type of disability, technology hands over distinct advances in distinct measures.
  • Collaboration: Students sharing same technological interests can team up to learn the functioning of a new technological device. These sessions are more interactive thus help the students to improve their communication skills by way of discussion, tutoring, and through simple inquisitiveness. The advantage of working together helps them get their queries resolved and step ahead to embark on a successful career in any field of interest.

The current education system is encouraging the use of advance devices and technological items in classrooms to improve the learning environment and record great success rate.

Effect of Dictatorship in Education on Social Behavoir of People

Dictatorship in education is made when government want to manage people through some untruth believes, so there is a necessity for education to make schools as environment that students could not ask any question and accept all issues that teacher say. This education will result people that accept the dictatorship instead of democracy and just oppose in the little clique. Publicity for superstitious, ambiguity and many untruths believes about god or religious.

In dictator education system censorship is common. So always all the issues couldn’t be the fact and they will express them by their desire and this is the beginning for criticism killing or beginning of opposing behaviour outcome some facts. Dictator education nurture open hostility towards students who question the teachers. Such students are branded as fool or awkward. So all the facts even true science like mathematics or chemistry or …will remain in ambiguity for students.

After school the outcome of this education system will be the opposing in front of truth or ambiguity in all aspect of life even in science.

Critical thinking will abase by government or even people or even by the family member.

Dictatorship in education will result in dictatorship in family with patriarchy or matriarchy .because it is a kind of amelioration for people that suffered from dictator education.

In the final we should be aware always about this kind of education because it educates people with many mental problems that let dictatorship engender in family, society and government. And the next gender will be the victims of this kind of education.

Using Trade Books in the Classroom

Looking for a way to encourage your students’ interest in a topic?  Trade books can provide the needed spark.  Trade books, which are primarily designed to entertain and inform outside the classroom, can be used successfully in the classroom to heighten motivation in your students.  Trade books cover just about every topic under the sun, so you can probably find a book that will align with your curriculum objectives in such a way as to help your students see the applicability of the topic. Students may show a keener interest in the lively way a trade book presents material over the stilted writings in a textbook.  While textbooks cover a topic in a prescribed way, a trade book may introduce or expand upon a topic by including it in a fictional setting, or alternatively, a non-fiction account from real life.

Classroom activities can be built around the book’s topic, so in addition to the reading practice and vocabulary development, all types of offshoot activities can be developed.  Depending on the book, there may be several ways to explore the concepts presented in the story or account.  Possibilities for math, science, social studies, geography, history, economics, and more may exist using the book as a jumping off point.  Here are some ideas on how to use a trade book in the classroom.

Interest is fundamental.  Since the primary reason for introducing a trade book into the classroom is to create interest in a topic, look for books which tell a story which is engaging.  Humor helps since many children enjoy humor and they may read with more attention if it is presented in a funny way.  The book can still present serious topics and ideas.  Another tip is to select books which address the interests of your students’ age group.  Elementary students tend to like stories about animals, children their own age, and fairy tales.  Middle school students are often like adventures, science fiction, and mysteries.  High school students enjoy books written for grown-ups – biographies, general fiction, adventures, mysteries, historical novels, and science fiction.

Check for special features.  Books with special features add more educational value.  For instance, books with glossaries can aid vocabulary development.  Books with research notes, bibliographies listing more potential material for exploration, and website listings related to the topic can assist you in developing teaching materials or assist students in writing reports.  Recipes can make for fun learning experiences.  Maps provide visual orientation for written descriptions.  Drawings and photographs can provide precise information on the physical aspects of an object.  All of these features can be used to enhance your students’ understanding of the teaching objective.

Reinforce literacy skills.  Almost any trade book can be used to support literacy skill development and reinforcement.  Besides providing reading practice, trade books can be used to support vocabulary development, story telling skills, writing skills, and even editing skills.  Some publishers provide reading grade-level score information for their books.  Many do not, as there is the perception that doing so many prevent some readers who would otherwise be interested, from reading the book.  Most schools grant credit to students who read books beyond assigned reading as a method of encouraging reading practice.  The Accelerated Reader Program is used by over 73,000 schools nationwide.  The database for this service includes more than 120,000 books, but is limited when you consider that according to Publishers Weekly around 30,000 new children’s books are published each year.  You may wish to allow a wider choice in books than those currently in the Accelerated Reader Program database.  Have students write a few paragraphs summarizing the story to prove they have read the book.  A child may be really interested in cars and willing to spend time reading about vintage models or auto repair but not be particularly interested in Tom Sawyer.

Search for resources.  Search the internet for teaching resources designed for the book you have selected.  Some publishers provide lesson plans, worksheets, discussion questions, and other teaching material to complement their books.  Visit the publisher’s website or the author’s website to see what might be offered.  You can also do this in reverse to find a book to use.  Search the internet using keywords like “teaching materials”, “teaching aids”, “lesson plans”, “lesson plan”, “teaching ideas”, “teaching resources”, or “teaching activities”.  You can also search for particular lesson plan topics and you may find a publisher who has developed material for a related book.

Read, discuss, then act.  Start the new lesson by having students read the book you have selected.  This can be done as homework or an in-class activity depending on your objectives and available time.  Then begin a discussion of the book bringing out the aspect related to your teaching objective.  Follow the discussion by actively using the material related to your teaching objective.  For instance, if your objective is for students to understand a historical event, have your students:

a.  construct timelines,

b.  create dioramas,

c.  assemble costumes,

d.  reenact the event,

e.  participate in a mock game show where the students are divided into teams and answer questions related to the event,

f.  create poster board displays,

g.  draw pictures depicting the event,

h.  or write their own story incorporating the historical event.

Any or all of these activities will make the lesson more interesting to your students.

You might also consider inviting the author to your classroom or the author may offer an e-mail exchange service where your students can interact with the author directly to ask questions about the book.  The author’s enthusiasm for the topic is often infectious and students can connect to the material through the author.

Engage your students’ imagination and curiosity.  Use trade books to bring fresh excitement to your classroom.  You can develop teaching materials to fit your teaching objectives or you may be able to find teaching resources ready for use on the internet.  In either case, you can enliven a potentially dull topic and captivate your class by taking advantage of a trade book.

Technology Aids Better School Management

The information Technology has made the world a village – ‘Global Village’. Individuals are sitting far off by a great many miles can now convey massages, and see one another in a simple and quick way. Webs offer awesome space for saving data, sharing and trading their merchandise that is open from anywhere to all over.

Data related technology has radically changed all aspects of human life and action – portals, schools, administrations, monetary data, travel & tourism, accommodation and hospitality, medical services even little business are very few to refer to. This internet based technology without any doubt has made lot of things less expensive, sparing huge time and enhanced quality of services as well as accessibility.

So far education is concerned; student information system has made possible the digitized incorporated framework with four components of an educative framework. Those are administration, teachers, students and staffs. It begins on easy and simple tutee portfolio and finishes with complex correspondence channels. This education organizational programming provides a full bundle of information about the scholar and data on other records like their scores, following absences, spots and time-tables, any messages, changes of status and so forth. It has extra parts to keep contact with guardians and parents, organization and staff.

Initially, the student management system was intended to help in keeping individual and study related data of learners. At the same time, with the interest of providing data to students, educators expressed the emphasis on pursuit level. Presently, with redesigned and modified version it comes up to desired standard and has become few times quicker. It is significantly more useable. Because of the level of detailed information it delivers and the atmosphere in which it is utilized; that made considerable advancement and helped to accelerate upper ranked methodology. It has not only spared considerable span of time to uncountable number of individuals, but also decreased the regime of regular paper works from enumerable count of percents and guardians.

Now going over to other systems which are dissimilar in respect to the earlier form it has made this student information system speedier and more powerful, allowing a free and peaceful state of mind. Assigned digital organs can now transform data support and approve without any further hold ups.

Administrative and regulatory capacities with monetary matters are authenticated in this method via an on-line procedure. Focusing on a record of a learner demonstrates the greater part of his development as well as on his or her accounts of finance related subjects along with all collection records.

This extraordinary student management system helps to reach more data into hands of parents and guardians, instructors and staff as it holds all of connected information accessible for specific people. Need of access to such a well planned system of data management has been developed and was needed by all who are likely to recognize it because of that only as it was moduled in such an extraordinary way. It assists all education organizations to carry on their specific requirements with a tireless ease all while.

Chess and Geometry – Teaching Kindergarten Chess

Frank Ho

Teacher and founder at Ho Math and Chess Learning Center

www.mathandchess.com

After researching the relationship between chess and math for over 10 years, I conjecture that chess is a geometry-based game, which particularly is related to the concept of symmetry. So the way to teach a very young child is perhaps to point out the meaning of symmetry in a practical way, not in a conceptual way. How young can a child learn chess? Often I was asked this question but only found out it is difficult to answer without actually having a conversation with the child or even trying to teach a few simple chess moves then playing a pawn only game. This has to do with a child’s cognitive development. Is the child able to follow a set of rules, which to a child is very abstract and perhaps presents no particular meaning to them? For example, a child as young as 5 can play some toys which required to be moved in linear fashion but to the same young child, the moves of a pawn to forward one or 2 squares at the first move and can only capture opponent’s piece in diagonal way is not very comprehensible to them.

Why a pawn can only capture in a diagonal way while other pieces can capture in their “regular” way of moves? Why knight jumps but not others? These reasons behind these moves can not be understood by most kindergarteners. This presents a challenge for those who want to teach chess to children as young as 4 or 5 years old.

Often, I was asked by parents why their children could play some puzzle type hands-on activities on their own, but not chess? The reason is that the way of playing chess is very different from some puzzle games. Chess is a game with rules to follow and there is no chance for exploring in hands-on approach like other puzzle-type games. If the rule of making chess pieces moves are not followed then there is no game, there is no compromise. A wrong or illegal move will draw complaints from the opponent. In contrast, most puzzle activities have no serious cause-result effects and there is no competition involved, young child is able to carry out the puzzle task with great margin of errors. This is at least part of the reasons that a child can perhaps play some puzzle type of games, but not chess. Chess requires the rules to be strictly followed with no errors.

The dynamics of chess positions and the thrill of being able to capture opponent’s pieces as their “rewards” has fascinated many young children asking for more games.

Is the child able to follow chess rules? If the answer is yes then the child is capable to learn as far as its mental ability development is concerned. The child is ready to accept the concept that a pawn can only take other pieces in a diagonal way however it seems to be abstract to them. This cognitive development is a very important milestone for a young child, it also means that the child is ready to do some work in abstraction that is they might be able to tackle the work of using symbols to do some reasoning or logic work.

At Ho Math and Chess, we have created a Symbolic Chess Language (SCL) which is to serve as a command language to link chess and math so a child as young as 4 or 5 can work on some math and chess integrated problems to help them further develop their high order thinking ability.

The set of workbooks created by Ho Math and Chess is not only to help child develop proficiency in basic math skills, but also intellectually to develop their cognitive ability in critical thinking skill. More information on math and chess research topic can be found by visiting www.mathandchess.com

Engineering Colleges in India – Fulfill your Goals for Higher Education Now!

If you are planning to complete your higher studies in India but not sure where and how to start, then this article will surely provides you some information. India is nation of diverse culture and traditions. However, the standard of education is the same all through the country. You will come across students from the south of India are doing their studies in a college in the west of India, and learners from the east doing their studies in the south or the north.

Engineering colleges in India offer both part time and full time learning options.

List of bestEngineering colleges in India: Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, VIT University, Vellore, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, Thapar University, Patiala, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, Punjab Engineering College University of Technology, Chandigarh, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Delhi, National Institute of Technology, Warangal, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, National Institute of Technology, Surathkal, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, National Institute of Technology, Calicut, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, JNTU College of Engineering, Hyderabad, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad      , International Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Indian Institute of Technology, Ropar, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur and Delhi Technological University, Delhi.

Foreigners also give Preference: With Indian students in great demand having engineering degree globally, most of the Indian engineering colleges that are joined up with a customary system of education. AICTE make sure that students in different states learn the similar things. For foreigner, choices are open and they can take admission in engineering colleges in India after qualifying the entrance exam.

As you may suppose, the top engineering colleges in India are always located in the tier 1 cities. You will locate the world popular IITs as well as other institutions including the REC’s (regional engineering college) in the bigger cities and towns.

Recognize at global level: The campus placements are also available, thus the demand from the business sector should be enough to find you good job in good companies. International placements are also possible with you complete your studies from top institutes. Indian education is highly reputed on the internationally level and most of the students who have completed their studies in India earn a good amount in their home country.

Cost Effective: Another important point to consider is the cost of education which is quite affordable for the students and one of the main points to attract the foreign students. At a part of the cost, international students find quality education when do engineering in India. Moreover top engineering colleges in India are also offering good accommodation facilities. Thus, there is no doubt to say that India is one of the best destinations to complete their B.tech and M.tech from some recognized university and institute.

Summary

Engineering colleges in India welcomes students not only from India but from foreign countries as well.

Training & Development

Training & Development

Training is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behaviour. It improves the employee’s performance on the current job and prepares them for an intended job.

Development not only improves job performance but also brings about the growth of the personality. Individuals not only mature regarding their potential capacities but also become better individuals.

Difference between Training & Development:

Training:

  1. It’s a short term process.
  2. Refers to instruction in technical and mechanical problems
  3. Targeted in most cases for non-managerial personnel
  4. Specific job related purpose

Development:

  1. It is a long term educational process.
  2. Refers to philosophical and theoretical educational concepts
  3. Managerial personnel
  4. General knowledge purpose

Purpose of Training:

  1. To improve Productivity: Training leads to increased operational productivity and increased company profit.
  2. To improve Quality: Better trained workers are less likely to make operational mistakes.
  3. To improve Organizational Climate: Training leads to improved production and product quality which enhances financial incentives. This in turn increases the overall morale of the organization.
  4. To increase Health and Safety: Proper training prevents industrial accidents.
  5. Personal Growth: Training gives employees a wider awareness, an enlarged skill base and that leads to enhanced personal growth.

Steps in Training Process:

  1. Discovering or Identifying Training needs: A training program is designed to assist in providing solutions for specific operational problems or to improve performance of a trainee.
    • Organizational determination and Analysis: Allocation of resources that relate to organizational goal.
    • Operational Analysis: Determination of a specific employee behaviour required for a particular task.
    • Man Analysis: Knowledge, attitude and skill one must possess for attainment of organizational objectives
  2. Getting ready for the job: The trainer has to be prepared for the job. And also who needs to be trained – the newcomer or the existing employee or the supervisory staff.
  3. Preparation of the learner:
    • Putting the learner at ease
    • Stating the importance and ingredients of the job
    • Creating interest
    • Placing the learner as close to his normal working position
    • Familiarizing him with the equipment, materials and trade terms
  4. Presentation of Operation and Knowledge: The trainer should clearly tell, show, illustrate and question in order to convey the new knowledge and operations. The trainee should be encouraged to ask questions in order to indicate that he really knows and understands the job.
  5. Performance Try out: The trainee is asked to go through the job several times. This gradually builds up his skill, speed and confidence.
  6. Follow-up: This evaluates the effectiveness of the entire training effort

The Sequence of Training Program can be put in a Flowchart as below:

Discovering or Identifying Training Needs -> Getting Ready for the job -> Preparation of Learner (Creating desire) -> Presentation of Operation & Knowledge -> Performance Try out -> Follow up and Evaluation

Training Techniques:

An effective training fulfills the following criteria:

  1. Adaptation of the technique/method to the learner and the job
  2. Provides motivation to the trainee to improve job performance
  3. Creates trainee’s active participation in the learning process
  4. Provide knowledge of results about attempts to improve

Development

Management development attempts to improve managerial performance by imparting

  1. Knowledge
  2. Changing attitudes
  3. Increasing skills

The major objective of development is managerial effectiveness through a planned and a deliberate process of learning. This provides for a planned growth of managers to meet the future organizational needs.

Development Process:

  1. Setting Development Objectives: It develops a framework from which executive need can be determined.
  2. Ascertaining Development Needs: It aims at organizational planning & forecast the present and future growth.
  3. Determining Development Needs: This consists of
    • Appraisal of present management talent
    • Management Manpower Inventory

The above two processes will determine the skill deficiencies that are relative to the future needs of the organization.

  1. Conducting Development Programs: It is carried out on the basis of needs of different individuals, differences in their attitudes and behaviour, also their physical, intellectual and emotional qualities. Thus a comprehensive and well conceived program is prepared depending on the organizational needs and the time & cost involved.
  2. Program Evaluation: It is an attempt to assess the value of training in order to achieve organizational objectives.

The Development process can be pictorially represented in a Flowchart as below:

Setting Development Objectives -> Ascertaining Development Needs -> Determining Development Needs -> Conducting Development Program -> Program Evaluation

Education: A Term that Changes the Social Scenario

Every society or broadly speaking a social group possesses the distinctiveness of its own. Whether it’s a tribe, state, society, nation or a race, each of these have their own peculiar experience and history. Like the individual, each social group has been subjected to external and internal influences which have produced its peculiar spirit and originality. Social progress is the idea that societies can or do improve in terms of their social, political, and economic structures. The social progress of a society depends upon a host of factors. But the most important factor among them is education.

When the people of a particular society are well versed, the society automatically progresses. The prime function of education is that it opens up new dimensions to people. It is a means through which people can come out of the world of ignorance to a new world of knowledge. It’s not that education only can hasten the developmental process of a country or a society, but it is definitely one of the focal points that everyone has to consider while talking about social progress.

India is a multi-lingual, multi-cultural country, where diversity is well mingled with unity of thoughts and ideas. In such a diversely unified country, the scholars recognized well the importance of education after the independence of the country. Not only the government, but the private organizations also forwarded their hands to strengthen the educational base of the country. Moreover, the setters of the Constitution of India implemented many such provisions through which a high standard of education can be met. This was also important, because education was the only means by which people can be freed from the four-walls of superstition and social isolation. The opportunities are made for the higher studies of the Indian students so that they need not to go to abroad for pursue their higher education.

IITs and IIMs were established and now the pass outs of these institutes are in great demand worldwide. With the standardization of education in India, many MNCs had been attracted towards the country to set up their offices. Not only that, the Indian education standard also attracts students living in distant parts of the world for the higher studies. The finality of education in social betterment can be, perhaps, further illustrated by reconsidering for a moment some of the social problems which we have just studied. With the spread of education, the crime rates in society decreases. The prime reason behind that is the enlightened group of people who are the members of that society.

Another fact to which the student needs his attention called is that all progress in human society, it follows, from what has just been said, depends upon the relation between one generation and its successor. Only as new life comes into society is there opportunity to improve the character of that life. If at any given time intelligence and character limit the possibilities of social organization, then it is equally manifest that only in the new individuals of society can that intelligence and character be greatly improved.

Kindergarten Fee Structure

1.0 Introduction.
In Singapore, there is no standard charge structure for kindergarten singapore fees. Every kindergarten will charge folks in an unexpected way; notwithstanding for kindergartens under the same name such PCF kindergartens, month to month expense will fluctuate from branch to branch. In this article, we attempt to show perusers a common expense structure of kindergartens in Singapore.

2.0 Monthly Fee
2.1 Nursery: Lowest month to month charge is $48 at some PCF kindergartens. Most astounding month to month expense is $1800; middle month to month charge is $180, and normal month to month expense is $232. PCF Kindergartens charge a month to month expense that range from $48 to $210.

2.2 Kindergarten 1: Lowest month to month charge is $74.9 at some PCF kindergartens. Most astounding month to month expense is $1800; middle month to month charge is at $180 and normal month to month expense is at $249. PCF Kindergartens’ month to month expense ranges from $74.9 to $350. PCF Kindergartens charge a month to month expense that can run from $74.9 to $350.

2.3 Kindergarten 2: Lowest month to month charge is $74.9 at some PCF kindergartens. Most astounding month to month expense is $1800; middle month to month charge is $180 and normal month to month expense is $250. PCF Kindergartens charge a month to month expense that can run from $74.9 to $350.

Note: PCF Kindergartens have an alternate month to month expense for Singapore Citizens, Permanent Residents and Foreigners. Case in point, in one PCF kindergarten in the north, month to month expense for Kindergarten 1 and 2 for Singapore Citizens is $160, changeless inhabitants need to pay $172 and nonnative $220.

3.0 Registration Fee
All kindergarten will charge an enrollment expense which may extend from $15 to more than $60.

4.0 Uniform Fee
All kindergartens will likewise oblige understudies to pay for the school regalia. One arrangement of uniform may cost $15 every set at some PCF kindergarten. Different kindergartens generally charge higher. PE clothing is likewise required and it is generally less expensive. It is about $10 at some PCF kindergartens.

5.0 Material or Book Fees
Understudies are likewise needed to pay for the study material, for example, perusing books, workbooks or other study materials that are utilized as a part of the kindergarten.

6.0 Miscellaneous expense
Different expense may cover protection or stationery utilized amid the lessons. It is normally gathered two times in a year. At some PCF kindergarten, this sum may be at about $70. Definite sum will shift from kindergarten to kindergarten.

7.0 Deposit
Kindergarten administrators may request that you pay a store when you enlist your youngster into the kindergarten. Sum may change from kindergarten to kindergarten.

8.0 Enrichment Program
A few kindergartens offer improvement programs which folks need to pay in place for their kids to join these discretionary projects.

How to teach dyscalculia kindergarten children?

How to teach dyscalculia kindergarten children?

Frank Ho

Canada certified math teacher

Ho Math and Chess Learning Centre

www.mathandchess.com

July, 2010

I have seen more and more young children, as young as 5 years old, showing signs of learning difficulties in math. Unfortunately many parents are not ware that this math learning math disability is genetic influenced and blame their children are “not smart”. Some will think that their children just “did not concentrate”, or simply are “too young” without realizing their children actually are trying very hard but just could not do it.

I have great sympathy to those children who cried after being blamed by their parents or some chose to react by making “X” hand gestures on their mothers’ faces.

As a math educator I have spent some time in researching this topic and seriously think on how I can help to improve their math ability.

First I observed that these 4 or 5 years olds do seem to know that they have difficulties in learning math since often they do not even know why they cannot give the correct answers. They may give an answer 2 – 1 is 4 without realizing it is just illogic. They cannot give any reasoning on how they come up with a wrong answer. One 5+ year old child could do 3 – 1 is 2 but strange later, I gave an concrete example by drawing 3 circles and one circle and then explained to him what would happen if three circles takes away 1 circle, I got a blank answer from this boy. All the sudden the theory that children learn better by using concrete example does not seem to work on him.

They cannot observe pattern well, do not know how to get answer by using comparisons. Their reasoning ability in coming up with answer is very weak.

When learning chess, they only look at one piece at a time and have no ability to even care what the opponent is doing at all. Any results require them to process then they will have no ability to do it quickly. Even with simple calculation such as 2 + 1, 3 + 1, it seems to be a slow process for them to get answers. The responses are very slow in getting any answers for straight computation of additions.

Their brain, hand and eye coordination seems to be always in slow motion.

My observation indicates that to improve their math ability, to work on math alone is not effective. By combining the materials of training their brain on how to think and math is more effective than just working on math worksheets alone.

I believe that Ho Math and Chess’ math teaching methodology in combining math, chess, and puzzles is a great way of helping those young kindergarten children with math learning difficulties.

American kindergarten classroom layout

U.S. Kindergarten classroom layout guidelines
The United States attached great importance to kindergarten education kindergarten classroom layout, which is the same view of the United States separated from kindergarten education. The main point is the U.S. Early Childhood Education:
First of all, children must use a variety of senses, through the direct effect of the environment for learning.
Second, preschool teachers need to encourage children to actively object with the environment, materials and people to interact.
Furthermore, preschool teachers must be provided for young children age-appropriate curriculum development and individual development.
Thus, the arrangement of the classroom U.S. kindergartens as a strategy, that the layout of the classroom can provide a good school for children
Learning environment, provide favorable conditions for the development of children.
Kindergarten classroom layout strategy for the United States
Classroom layout
U.S. kindergarten classrooms can generally be divided into several different fields of study: building block corner, home corner, corner desk toys, art corner, science corner, book corner.
These areas are also available for group activities. Such as, music and sports activities, storytelling and class meetings.
Recently, some kindergartens also increased the angle of computers and cooking.
Classroom layout strategy
Furniture in different areas separated. This makes it easy to choose children’s activity area clear. At the same time, teachers can look at the overall situation, know what’s what.
Crowded places and quiet places are separated, communication hubs are used to reduce distraction.
Material is placed on low shelves so children can easily get them. Shelf labels with a clean, uncluttered, this material can easily be seen, was chosen, was to take place.
The same material together, it can teach a child classification, and to put things sequentially.
Each of these areas have a lot of material to meet the different needs of different children.
Different materials to develop different senses provide different experiences.
The role of the United States Kindergarten Classroom Layout
U.S. Kindergarten classroom layout of the development of children, is in the following two aspects.
(A) the activities of each specific region can promote early childhood learning specific knowledge, the development of specific skills, social personality.
(B) all of the active region can develop children’s trust to develop children’s independence, develop their attention, send

Skills development of their skills.
Training children a sense of trust: a classroom of children is reasonably arranged, a trust in the classroom. The activity area of the toy rack placed neatly classified clearly, young children can easily find the items, will not find the items needed to feel uneasy; children’s art posted on the Art Corner, and their level of sight of the highly consistent, which makes children feel that their work be taken seriously; classroom book corner warm and comfortable, so that they can sit down and read or rest; the activity area of the material sufficient to reduce the quarrel between children; children in twos and threes activities in an activity area that can help them learn to live together, trust each other.

Development of children’s independence: the ability to choose child care training and found their own interests, the development of personality. Arrangement is reasonable, clearly defined activities in the region to help children make choices that determine in which regional activities; toy shelves display objects have some appeal, can trigger children’s interest, so that they can take up toys alone, independent use , do not rely on adults to help; when the campaign ended, children need to clean up their own independent toy played, they will pack up for their pride is independent.
Training children’s attention: training children to concentrate on the use of various items and various activities. Clearly defined area of activity will not make children’s attention is spread by activities in other regions, the relative concentration of young children can focus on the activities of hand; furniture used (used to separate the various activity areas) to prevent the children look around, and concentrate in their activities; quiet areas and noisy areas are separated too far, making a quiet area not affected by noise in the region; enough interesting toys to attract children’s attention to materials, will not be disturbed by other activities .

Development of children’s skills, techniques: the development of children’s math skills, reading and writing skills, social skills. By using different materials, children learn sorting and matching. If put on the two items will make the same kinds of children learn to match up similar items; book corner activities to foster children’s ability to quiet reading; family angle and the angle of the activities desk toys can help children develop eye-hand coordination ability to develop their reading skills; each activity area child care exchanges can promote children’s social communication ability, develop their social skills.

A book’s style

When publishing a book a proofreader plays an important part in giving it a professional feel and look. If you are bad at spelling and grammar you will never be able to check your text for mistakes simply because you will not be able to identify them. So it’s always better to hire a proofreader, who was trained during his proofreading course of study, to become an expert in this field. There are a lot of proofreading courses available, but if you want to focus solely on the writing, hiring one, will save your time and reputation.

There is also a need for proofreading the books which were written by non-English speakers, because in many cases the language is too formal, the phrasing is not consistent and the words might be used wrong. In this case the proofreading process is more difficult and it’s important to consult the writer all the time regarding the text because by changing it, the meaning might be affected.

Proofreading is important because it’s that element which pushes the story forward ,it’s like spring cleaning for a text, making it ready to be enjoyed by the reader who should just focus on the story and not on the text errors.

Misused words: words which sound the same but are written differently. This is a big bannana skin in the English language.

Missing words or extra words: this appears when the text was not read again to check for consistency of the story.

Repeated words: it’s very important to avoid having the same words or expressions close to each other.

Punctuation errors: missing commas,full stops or the apostrophes have to be correctly placed.

Incorrect end of line: when words are split incorrectly by the typesetting software need to be corrected by the proofreader.

Spacing: the extra space between words, sentences or paragraphs needs to be eliminated.

Footnotes and end notes: it’s important to be the appropriate reference to the text ,not to create confusion.

Graphics: they need to be in the right places, according to the book’s structure.

The headings, text indentation and paragraph’s styles have to be done according to the publishing house’s style keeping the consistency throughout the book.

So the overall look and style of the book make it a competitive product suitable for the market with high chances of success!

Teacher-Students Interaction: An Evaluation of an EFL Classroom

Introduction

According to Powell, “He who has no inclination to learn more will be very apt to think that he knows enough.”

Classrooms are social settings; teaching and learning occur through social interaction between teachers and students. As teaching and learning take place, they are complicated processes and are affected by peer-group relationships. The interactions and relationships between teachers and students, and among students, as they work side by side, constitute the group processes of the classroom.

Group processes are especially significant in twenty-first century schools. Group projects and cooperative teamwork are the foundations of effective teaching, creative curriculum, and positive classroom climate. Interpersonal skills, group work, and empathy are important ingredients of modern business, where employees must communicate well for their business to be productive and profitable. Group processes are also significant in modern global communities, where citizens must work together for a safe and secure world. Thus, along with teaching academic curriculum, teachers are expected to help students develop the attitudes, skills, and procedures of democratic community.

Teacher-student relationships provide an essential foundation for effective classroom management—and classroom management is a key to high student achievement. Teacher-student relationships should not be left to chance or dictated by the personalities of those involved. Instead, by using strategies supported by research, teachers can influence the dynamics of their classrooms and build strong teacher-student relationships that will support student learning.

Smith (1990) said, “Teachers who love their students are of course by that very fact teaching their students the nature of love, although the course may in fact be chemistry or computer science.” He thoroughly endorses out-of-class contacts between students and faculty, “because they reveal something to the student about reality that can, I suspect, be learned no other way. Such contracts demonstrate that ideas are ’embodied.’ They do not exist apart from a person, remote or near at hand, who enunciates, who takes responsibility for them by declaring them, by speaking about them.” Or in the words of Woodrow Wilson, “We shall never succeed in creating this organic passion, this great use of the mind until (we) have utterly destroyed the practice of merely formal contacts between teacher and pupil.”

Literature Review

Wubbels and his colleagues (Wubbels, Brekelmans, van Tartwijk, & Admiral, 1999;

Wubbels & Levy, 1993) identify appropriate dominance as an important characteristic of effective teacher-student relationships. In contrast to the more negative connotation of the term dominance as forceful control or command over others, they define dominance as the teacher’s ability to provide clear purpose and strong guidance regarding both academics and student behavior. Studies indicate that when asked about their preferences for teacher behavior, students typically express a desire for this type of teacher-student interaction. For example, in a study that involved interviews with more than 700 students in grades 4–7, students articulated a clear preference for strong teacher guidance and control rather than more permissive types of teacher behavior (Chiu & Tulley, 1997). Teachers can exhibit appropriate dominance by establishing clear behavior expectations and learning goals and by exhibiting assertive behavior.

Class Description

The present study observed a class of thirty students of Sylhet Women’s College. The teacher was a Bangladeshi male with several years teaching experience at Bangladeshi government colleges. The goal of this class is to teach the students’ conversation, reading, listening and writing skills. Their English ability level is intermediate. During the observation period, the students appeared motivated and attentive, and they seemed to be enjoying the class. The researcher observed class being out of the notice of the students.

Identification of Problem

It is observed that the students didn’t respond willingly to the teacher’s questions and did not participate in class discussions. Students also never asked the teacher questions outside one-on-one situations. Thus the teacher received little oral feedback Most of the learners sit looking straight ahead using minimal facial expressions, gestures and verbal utterances. The teacher said, “I want the students to be more demonstrative and more overtly communicative in their feedback. I want these behaviours: I want the students to ask me questions, make comments and to respond with nods and shakes of the head, with sounds of agreement or sounds of understanding. Also, I want them to be both reactive and proactive”.

Investigation

The present researcher observed the 2nd year of Higher Secondary Class. In the first 30 minutes, the class went through an intermediate level oral dialogue. The students first listened to the dialogue read out by the teacher with their books closed, then again with the books opened. Next, they did a dictation exercise consisting of 15 short sentences based on the dialogue. The teacher then talked about the sociolinguistic and grammar points of the exercise and went on to probe for comprehension:

  • Teacher: Do you have any questions? Do you understand everything?
  • Students: (no response from the students)
  • Teacher: Okay, how many people were speaking?
  • Students: (no response)
  • Teacher: How many people were speaking?
  • Students: (no response)
  • Teacher: There were two. Two people. Were they friends or strangers?
  • Students: (no response)
  • Teacher: Should I read out the dialogue again?
  • Students: (no response from any body)
  • Teacher: Should I translate the dialogue into mother tongue?
  • Students: ( looking at one another)

The teacher asked a few other questions which also drew no response or reaction from the students. The students then had to answer some questions about the conversation in their book. Most of the students seemed to have little trouble doing this, and if there were any questions, they readily asked the student sitting next to them. The second half of the class was devoted to pair work using the phrases and vocabulary from the taped dialogue in role play. The students seemed to enjoy this, and most tried to create their own dialogues. The teacher circulated the room checking on the progress of each pair. The class atmosphere was markedly different from the first half of the class, with chatter and occasional laughter filling the air. The students answered most of the teacher’s questions with alacrity, and some even asked their own questions.

Analysis of the Observation

It is found that the students of the reviewing class generally understand the teacher’s questions; it was felt that there was something else that kept the students from responding voluntarily in the class-teacher dialogues. Since most Bangladeshi students are taught to listen and not to question a teacher in class, Bangladeshi students have little or no experience in in-class interaction with the teacher, such as questioning or commenting or giving feedback. Students are usually taught to be quiet and respectfully listen to the teacher. By teaching the students that class interaction with the English teacher is not only acceptable, but normal, useful and beneficial, it was believed that the students would become more interactive with the teacher in teacher-class interaction.

Suggestions for the Teachers

1. How do you encourage students to be active and interested?

  • From the first day, demonstrate and talk about your own enthusiasm for the course material, and how it helps you personally. Look for ways to connect the material to the lives of your students. Use current event articles, editorials from local newspapers, or examples from your own life that illustrate your points. Solicit these examples from your students.
  • Create a “need to know.” As you are preparing your lesson plans, ask yourself – why would a student need to know this? This helps you think about material in terms of its relevance to students’ lives.

2. How do you deal with apathetic students?

  • Try to build a personal relationship with these students, and take an interest in them to find out what is at the bottom of the “perceived apathy.” Learning students’ names and using names in class can help students understand that you are interested in them and in their success in your course. Consider e-mailing a student who seems disinterested or unresponsive and let him/her know that you would like to help them in any way that you can. Oftentimes their apparent apathy has nothing to do with the course. There may be personal matters that are dominating their attention. Some students are going through a period of depression which disconnects them from their studies. Showing a little concern can be very helpful.

3. How do you get my students to prepare for class?

  • Give students some kind of assignment. They often need this structure. They also need accountability. Make sure the assignment is not just busy work. Design it to be relevant and use whatever the students have prepared directly in class. Some teachers ask a few study questions, some give a short quiz, some ask students to write a response to the reading. You can require a short assignment with each reading, but they do not all have to be graded. You can tell students that out of the 8-10 assignments they will turn in, X will be graded. These will be done at random so it is important that each assignment is completed. This will help with your grading workload.
  • When assigning reading, give the students a few questions on which they must take a stand (debate) at the next class meeting.

4. How can you recognize different learning abilities and work with them individually?

  • In order to recognize different learning abilities, you must observe your students carefully and make written records to help you see any patterns that may be occurring in the child’s learning. You might notice different ability levels in the way they think, the product they produce, and the way they interact with others. These are all differences which affect student learning. Be sure that you offer a variety of different learning experiences in your class. Provide some creative/artistic activities, book work, skits, real-world scenarios, music, discussions, etc. that will both challenge some students and make others feel a higher level of success.
  • It is hard to find time to work one-on-one with students. However, you might be able to find parent or community volunteers who are willing to come into your class and work one-on-one with different students. Another way is to spend some extra time with those students while monitoring during individual work time. Pairing a higher ability student with one who needs extra help is an excellent way to provide peer tutoring. This should not be done every single day, but on an as-needed basis. Lastly, before and after-school tutoring is an excellent time to work one-on-one with those students who need extra help.
  • Find out about your students’ interests, experiences, hobbies, career goals… As often as you can, relate the content to students’ interests.
  • Use lots of examples, illustrations, anecdotes, stories.
  • Use humor.
  • Use appropriate self-disclosure. Be a “real” person. Let students know some things about you.
  • Admit mistakes, lack of knowledge. Don’t try to be THE authority. Instead, model where students can find the information. Knowing where to find the answers is just as important as knowing the answers.
  • Talk less than your students do.
  • Encourage interaction among students. Use group work, encourage discussion, try brainstorming, role playing, whatever you feel comfortable with. Try something
  • Give positive feedback, verbally (praise) and non-verbally (make eye-contact, smile, nod).
  • Make sure that the level of teaching matches students’ background, ability, and experience.
  • Check that the relevance of what you’re doing is clear to the students.
  • Use as much VARIETY in your methods and materials as possible.
  • Be clear about what’s going to happen. Use an agenda.
  • Encourage students to make decisions about their own Learning — give them CHOICES, act on their suggestions.
  • If possible, encourage students to have input into how they will be evaluated.
  • Ask students how the sessions could be made more interesting!
  • Engage students in their learning. Activity is much more motivating than passive listening or passive responses. The more students DO, the more they will learn.

The Evolution of Educational Technology

The classroom environment today is completely different from the traditional classroom we’re all used to years ago. The introduction of new technologies, such as document cameras, interactive whiteboards and classroom response systems, have added not only excitement but student engagement and true interactivity within the classroom.

Technologies are consistently changing and improving. Overhead projectors are still being used, however, they have been replaced by document cameras. The ability to project a book or document on the fly allows teachers the freedom to adjust their lesson to the direction of the discussion.

Whiteboards have replaced chalkboards, interactive whiteboards have replaced regular whiteboards, and now interactive whiteboard technology is replacing conventional interactive whiteboards such as Smart and Promethian. This new interactive technology allows schools to keep their existing whiteboard and add a device which will turn their whiteboard into an interactive whiteboard. No more installing interactive whiteboards on top of the school’s original whiteboard! Educational technology  has allowed schools to save money and improve their current setup. Also, this new interactive whiteboard technology allows capture. Capturing physical ink from the whiteboard WITHOUT the use of the projector!

Teacher’s now have websites and post their notes and future assignments. The new interactive whiteboard technology, i.e. mimio, allows for regular ink capture and instant uploading to the Internet.

Another educational technology recently introduced to the classroom are classroom response systems or voting systems, also know as “clickers”. There are many different manufactures: LearnStar, Renaissance, InterWrite, and Scantron are just a few. Every student would have a clicker or handheld device. There are typically two kinds. The small one has only numbers and the large one has both numbers and a full keyboard. A full keyboard allows students to answer multiple choice as well as fill in the blank questions. The most common use are “polling” type questions. There is a software program specific for clickers, A+Classroom, which has a patented competition mode. Students receive points based on the speed in which they answer the questions. Students are constantly asking for more questions during this mode. Students that typically don’t raise their hand or voluntarily involved in the class are now engaged and competing with the other students. Since there is an option to keep the names confidential, only the students know where they are ranking within the class.

‘Case studies less in management institutes of developing nations’

World class management institutes teach hundreds of case studies to their students during the two year MBA programmes, while the same is much lesser for the similar institutes in developing countries. This was said by SB Singh while inaugurating the three-day national case writing workshop at the Prestige Institute of Management Gwalior on Sunday.

The chief guest SB Singh and special guest S Mazumdar inaugurated the workshop by lighting light and garlanding the portrait of Goddess Saraswati. After that the convener of the workshop Shailja Bhakar gave information about the subject of the workshop. The director of the institute SS Bhakar greeted the chief guest and said that case writing plays an important role in management.

He said that all the students of MBA Programme of eminent management of the institute of world Harvard Business School study more than 900 cases during two years of training period.

The IIM Ahmedabad, Kellog of Stanford, London Business School and the likes follow the pattern of Harvard Business School. Bhakar said that the Harvard Business School included more than 12,000 cases in the year 2008 for study. But in the developing countries, the number of cases to be developed is much less.

The chief guest said that this programme is being organised for the last nine years. This is laudable development of industries and Information Technology were made to a great extend. But to make the country superpower it would have to be self-sufficient in other fields also, in which the agriculture is important. In the end, the director of the institute Prof SS Bhakar thanked the guest.

Notes from a Conference on using Social Media for Education-3

From the Plenary session on Web 2.0 Tools by Dr. Senthilnathan, Dept. of Educational Technology, Bharatidasan University, Trichirapalli

It is pleasing to note that  this conference began on 01 February which is being celebrated as International Digital Learning Day….Digital refers  to ‘finger tips’. The moot question regarding Web  tools is  how to use it effectively  for educational purposes.

WWW can be seen as  ‘whatever, whenever, where ever’.

The  advantage of  making use of digital platforms is that  it helps:

  • Engagement and Connectivity
  • Provides multisensory learning experience
  • Provides multimodal input
  • Provides higher access
  • Increases equity
  • Enhances quality

An audio-video combination is more capable of penetrating the mind . It has  also been found that retention is longer in such a combination. After all the best way to the mind is visual.

Today  we speak about the grey revolution. (referring  to the grey cells of the brain). The teachers of today  have a  tremendous challenge. These include:

  • Rethinking basic tenets about  how to teach and how learners learn
  • Deploy  media in creative and productive ways
  • Restructure education to respond  progressively  and constructively  to the social and technological changes.

To properly plan the use of Web Tools, the four M’s of education  has to be addressed:

Men, Materials, Method and Media.

Digital Age pedagogy  addresses  the following:

  • New generation learners
  • New learning environment
  • New learning methods
  • New generation of methods.

Learning was oral once. It started making use of print…now it is digital. The teacher has moved from being a  facilitator to a co-learner. He/she should be an orchestrator of learning and not a dispenser of information.

The US Defence Secretary  recently said “…The wars of  the 21st  century cannot be fought with the guns of the 20th century….”

The same analogy works for Education: The class of the 21st century cannot be handled with the  teaching tools of the 20th century!! The teacher  still has a place…after all Online portals cannot work without a teacher. But learn to do today’ job with today’s tools!!!

From the Plenary session on e-content creation and management by Dr.S.Arulselvan, Associate Professor, Dept. of Electronic Media and Mass Communication, Pondicherry University, Puducherry

Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) has 50,000 to one lakh students.

Course-era: 33 Universities have joined hands to offer 197 courses in 18 Subjects.

edX   is offered by MIT,  Harvard  etc.

Brandon Hall Group Excellence Award is given for sites

Manthan : The Indian awards for sites

Prezi is a good presentation tool.

Class 2Go : It is an initiative of Stanford University

The issues to be addressed in e-content development  begins with  the  industry involved in e-content development. This would mean dealing  with the Team leader, Instructional design, Graphic developer, Quality of the student etc.

From the Plenary session on Application of  Mobile Technology by Dr. K. S. Ramakrishnan, Associate Professor, Tamilnadu Open University, Chennai

The computer power in NASA , 1969 is now available in the palm of  your hand… a single mobile phone.

M-Learning is an intersection of mobile computing and e-learning and includes anytime, anywhere resources. It has strong search capabilities.

A recent study has shown that 69%  people have mobile phones and only 2% have desktops.

A PhD  thesis now submitted to M.S.University, Tirunelveli  was done exclusively using the mobile phone!

Methods to Select Kindergarten Graduation Dresses

Kindergarten graduation caps and gowns is one of the most important element and part of graduation day. It is imperative for you to prepare your child not only emotionally, but also physically. It is important to select the most appropriate dress that can give your child the best day ever. That are overwhelming option that you go for when it comes to kindergarten dresses especially if you will choose to locate in the internet. You will find lots of online vendor that can provide you with lots of design, styles, and colors suited for kids. It is not always about graduation, it is also important to buy your kid with nice dress that they can use under their graduation gown or on their graduation party. Provide your kind with decent and nice dress that they can wear.

If you have a daughter that will graduate from preschool it is imperative to let them pick their own choice of dress. Little girls have their own choice when it comes to selecting the right kind of dress that they can wear under their graduation gown. Little girls like dressing up. It is imperative to let them feel independent.  Most of the time there are parties held by the school right after their graduation. This is not an evening part because it is for kids.

Your child does not need to change their clothes again especially if they are wearing appropriate dress for the right kind of occasion. Guide your kid in choosing for the right kind of dress for them. Avoid imposing a dress that they do not want. It can be very helpful if you will ouch two to three dresses and let them decide which one will suit their taste.

For boys, it sin important to really guide them on what they are going to wear during this special day. Boys do not have the taste and the patience to dress up and to select for the right kind of dress for them. Boys during this age are more interested in playing and toys. Do not expect them to show some interesting dressing up.

You have to always follow the rules given by the school about the proper graduation gowns address during this graduation ceremony. If you are think of ways on how you can save more money to buy nice graduation dress for your kid. You can choose to convince other parents to buy wholesale graduation gowns.

Your kids cannot do all task without your help that is why it is imperative to guide your kid for them to have the best graduation experience. Do not allow your kids to wear sneakers especially boys even if they insists, it is better to teach your kid on how to dress properly during occasion like this. Your guidance will take them to their kindergarten diplomas.

SAT math book: The best way of gaining high score

The importance of SAT has become worldwide known and everyone is aware of that. Many colleges are judging the potential of students through SAT entrance exam. Keeping this thing in mind every student prepares for SAT. SAT contains three sections in it.

  • Math: This section is all about the equations, theorems and queries which you have already gone through in your tenth grade. SAT requires your basic math skills to clear the exam.
  • Critical reasoning: This critical reasoning section is pre-arranged to test your capability to read and understand written English of university course level. It contains two sections in it- sentence completion and critical reading.
  • Writing: In this section, your writing skills are tested in two ways- what is your method of writing an essay on any given topic and how you solve the difficult questions of English Grammar.

Out of all the three sections, math section appears to be difficult for many students. To conquer your fear of math, you should prepare for it by using the good quality of sat math prep book. You should also try to solve as many sat prep questions math as you can.

A systematic and detailed book should be considered for preparation. Prefer a book which specifically covers those questions that are asked frequently in SAT exam. In market you will find numbers of SAT books but most of them are written by non-experts and novice practitioners of SAT. Such novice practitioners who themselves have not been able to score good marks, how can they write a good book upon it. Their poorly written books give unclear answers to questions. These books are a complete wastage of money and time. Therefore, it is very important to pick a proper math book written by some renowned expert or mathematician. Knowledge and experience of mathematician adds value to math book.

A SAT math prep book should have tricky questions similar to the SAT exam questions. Preparing for math is all about focusing on both of your strong and weak points. You have to spend some quality time on the key areas to gain improvement in your score. Some students only practice questions from their strong areas so as to feel positive. But, by doing this they do nothing except wasting their valuable time. Many mathematicians and experienced SAT high scorers recommend you to practice questions from your weak areas also. It is important to do because the questions will be asked from all areas in the SAT exam

For scoring high marks it is essential to have accurate prep materials and prepare yourself according to it.

Best Books for Eamcet Exams

Candidates should have passed or appeared for the final year of Intermediate examination (10+2 pattern) with Mathematics, Physics along with Chemistry/Biotechnology/Biology as optionals or related vocational courses in the fields of Engineering and Technology, conducted by the Board of Intermediate Education, Andhra Pradesh along with Bridge course or courses conducted by it for candidates enrolled during 2000-2002 and subsequent batches, or any other examination recognized as equivalent thereto by the Board of Intermediate Education, Andhra Pradesh, provided that candidates who have passed or appeared for the final year of intermediate examination (10+2 pattern) with Biology, Physics and Chemistry as optionals along with the Bridge course examination in Mathematics conducted by the Board of Intermediate Education, Andhra Pradesh shall also be eligible for the Bio-Technology course.

This examination is the prerequisite for admission into various professional courses offered in Govt/Private colleges in the state of Andhra Pradesh Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad (JNTUH) situated in the heart of Andhra Pradesh state’s capital city, Hyderabad at Kukatpally is a major landmark, has an environment of Academic Excellence Bringing the spark of knowledge to young minds and instilling a new confidence and vigor to face the world, it is providing quality education for nearly four decades Andhra Pradesh State Council of Higher Education (APSCHE) has delegated the task to JNTUH for conducting the most prestigious entrance examination of Andhra Pradesh-Engineering, Agriculture and Medical Common Entrance Test (EAMCET) for this year 2012.

The best books for EAMCET are Deepthi series text books where detail description of sums and problems is given at EAMCET and intermediate level. The concepts in the book are very easy to understand , and one can prepare for EAMCET with the help of this book very easily even in the absence of a tutiour. The syllabus is structured that the student gets the view of various levels of difficulty in solving problems. We can also find a key for this book released by Deepthi publications at January before the date of exam so one can find the solutions in a easy way.This book is also useful in preperation of AIEEE and other deemed university entrance exam. The intermediate books published by Board of Intermediate Education of Andhra Pradesh are also the best books that a student can afford for preparing for EAMCET. The examples are given at end of every topic and the detail explaination is given in these books. The problems are arranged in a systematic manner that a student can go from low level to high level with little strain.

The best tutorial book for IIT-JEE for the subject in Physics is “The Concept of Physics “. This book comes in two volumes Part I and part II by H.C.Verma. The concepts are divided in these volumes and are structured in proper manner that a student preparing for IIT-JEE can read the concepts, understand them and implement them. You can find solutions for this book online. In addition to this, Tata McGraw Hill publication books and Arihant series books are also better books for IIT-JEE . Many publishers like Arihant series offer books written by various authors of each topic of Physics like MechanicI, MechanicsII, Thermodynamics, WaveTheory, Electricity, Magnetism, Theory of Physics, Modern Physics, Objective Physics etc.

2016 Brilliant IIT JAM Coaching – Trajectory Education

Millions of applicants appear in IIT JAM exam every year with their aim to pass IIT JAM Entrance exam in the first try. There are numbers of IIT JAM Coaching in Delhi however the most renowned as well as innovative coaching institute is trajectory education. Our main aim is to offer quality teaching to our applicants. We have the excellent faculty as well as trainers in our coaching who have experience of more than 8 years in teaching applicants.
Trajectory education is one of the Top IIT JAM Coaching institute in Delhi. We consider in hard work. It is one of the leading as well as excellent institute for the preparation of IIT JAM in Delhi. We trained our applicants for obtaining admissions in the most renowned institutes of India. We usually concentrate on building concepts of applicants.
IIT JAM applicants require to be very devoted about their objectives accordingly, they should make entire possible efforts to select an institute.
Trajectory education provides IIT jam coaching such as IIT JAM Math Coaching, IIT JAM Physics Coaching, IIT JAM Biotech coaching, IITJAM chemistry coaching for the applicants.
We understand that students have very limited time for the preparation so we try to cover all the aspects in this limited time period. In our institute, students are gone through rigorous practices to get expertise in all subjects. We ensure that we provide the best methodology of teaching to the students.

  • We have developed comprehensive study material in the form of hard bound books which have been published by Samvedna publication and authored by TE faculties. The books are so comprehensive that students do not need to refer any other book. In fact it is highly challenging to complete Samvedna books in given time frame. The books have been written keeping view the pattern of entrance exam papers. The question of previous years papers have been solved in great details in these books.
  • Once the student enrolls in classroom course, he/she is also enrolled in online course free of any charge. A login is provided to each student where one can view the video lectures on each topic.
  • We encourage the students to discuss any doubt in the classroom while lectures are delivered as it helps other students also and makes the classroom participative. However, the students are free to ask their doubt after the class also. The students can also submit their doubt on discussion forums which is available in online course.
  • To track the performance of students we have regular tests. There are two kind of tests: Online and offline. We have around 150 small tests on various topics of syllabus in our online course. The online tests have also been divided into two levels. Level 1 has 10 objective questions which have to be answered in 30 min and Level 2 also has 10 objective questions which have to be answered in 60 min. The results of these tests along with detailed solution are available  immediately after submission of test. The performance in these test are recorded in the grade book of each student.At the end there will be 10 offline tests strictly based on exam pattern one month before the exam.

Class Notes – Human Resource Management

Recruitment

It is the discovering of potential of applicants for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies. It actually links together those with jobs and those seeking jobs.

Flippo’s definition: “It is a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organization.”

Thus the purpose of recruitment is to locate sources of manpower to meet job requirements and job specifications.

Factors affecting Recruitment:

1. The size of the organization.

2. The employment conditions in the community where the organization is located.

3. The effects of past recruiting efforts which show the organization’s ability to locate and retain the good performing people.

4. Working conditions, salary and benefit packages offered by the organization.

5. Rate of growth of the organization.

6. The future expansion and production programs.

7. Cultural, economic and legal factors.

However these factors may be divided specifically as Internal and External factors.

Internal Factors:

1. Recruitment policy of the organization

2. Human resource planning strategy of the company

3. Size of the organization and number of people employed

4. Cost involved in recruiting employees

5. Growth and expansion plans of the organization

External Factors:

1. Supply and demand of specific skills in the labour market.

2. Political and legal factors like reservations of jobs for specific sections of society etc

3. The job seekers image perception of the company.

Steps of a Recruitment Process:

Personnel recruitment process involves five elements:

1. A recruitment policy

2. A recruitment organization

3. A forecast of manpower

4. The development of sources of recruitment

5. Different techniques used for utilizing these sources & a method of assessing the recruitment program

These five elements are further elaborated below:

1. Recruitment Policy: It defines the objective of the recruitment and also provides a framework for the implementation of the recruitment program. The policy should be based upon corporate goals and needs. The criteria for selection and preferences should include merit and suitability.

2. Recruitment organization: It is necessary to centralize the recruitment and selection function in a single office. This will bring about maximum efficiency and success in hiring. This centralized office is known as the Employee Office or the Recruitment Section.

3. Forecast of Manpower: This usually specifies:

a. Jobs or Operations for which the person should be available.

b. Duration of their employment.

c. Salary to be offered & terms of the employment

d. Necessary qualification and experience

4. Sources of Recruitment: There can be two kinds of sources for recruitment:

a. Internal – This includes personnel already on the payroll of an organization. Whenever there is a vacancy, somebody within the organization fills in or is upgraded.

b. External – These sources lie outside the organization.

5. Methods of Recruitment: The possible recruiting methods can be divided into three categories:

a. Direct – In this method, recruiters visit colleges and technical schools, e.g. Infosys, the Tata Group, Accenture, IBM, Siemens and several other companies maintain continuous relationship with institutions to hire students for responsible positions.

b. Indirect – This involves advertising in newspaper, radio, T.V., journals etc. Advertising can be very effective if its media is properly chosen.

c. Third Party methods – This include use of commercial or private employment agencies, placement officials of schools, recruitment firms etc. Friends and relatives of present employees are also a good source from which employees may be drawn as part of the “Buddy Referral” programs.

Thus broadly the Personnel Recruitment Process can be mapped in a Flowchart as below:

Personnel/Human Resource Planning -> Locating needed Personnel -> Selecting Qualified Personnel -> Placing New Employees on the Job

Selection Procedure

The Main Objective of a selection procedure is to determine whether an applicant meets the qualification for a specific job, and then to choose the applicant who is most likely to perform well in that job.

The entire process of selection begins with an initial screening interview and concludes with a final employment decision. When a selection policy is formulated, organizational requirement like technical and professional dimensions are kept in mind.

Steps in selection procedure:

1. Reception of applications or preliminary screening

2. Application bank that gives a detail about the applicant’s background and life history

3. A well conducted interview to explore the applicant’s background

4. The physical examination

5. Psychological testing that gives an objective look at a candidates suitability for that job

6. A reference check

7. Final Selection approved by the manager

8. Communication of the decision to the candidate.

Therefore the Selection Process can be pictorially represented in a flowchart as below:

Establishing Selection Process -> Identifying & choosing selection criteria -> Gathering information about potential employees -> Evaluating information for assessing applicant -> Making decision to select or reject -> Communicating decision

Thus the selection process should be planned such that human resource is efficiently used. The right person for the right job and inducting her/him into the organization or department successfully is the basic criteria of the entire process.

Classroom Management: How to Handle Minor Classroom Management Problems

As a full-time middle school teacher as well as a part-time adjunct education professor, I know quite well how important it is to have strong classroom management skills.

Personally, I am a big proponent of the using a “proactive” approach to classroom management. My goal is to stop classroom management problems BEFORE they start. I do this by using teaching strategies that increase student motivation, increase class participation and basically keep my students involved throughout the entire lesson.

However, regardless of how effective a teacher uses proactive classroom management strategies, minor disruptions will still occur in the classroom. Before we go any further let me make one thing perfectly clear here…this article is about stopping MINOR classroom management problems such as talking while the teacher is talking, writing or passing notes, and minor roughhousing.

There are two common ways in which teachers usually deal with these nagging classroom management issues…

In order to avoid being the known as the tough disciplinarian, some teachers choose to simply ignore minor misbehaviors altogether. The problem with this approach is that the misbehavior will most likely NOT go away. In fact, the misbehavior will most likely escalate and the teacher will be forced to deal with it anyway. Therefore, ignoring the misbehavior is just too risky.

On the other hand, some teachers use the strict approach and react to every minor disturbance regardless of the severity of the misbehavior.

The problem with this approach is that it presents the teacher as a negative role model, and it may lead to an overall negative feeling in the classroom and towards learning and school in general. Furthermore, the teacher’s response may actual cause greater disruption to the lesson than the student’s original misbehavior.

The problem is if the teacher stops the lesson to discipline 1 or 2 students for some minor misbehavior then the class went from 1 or 2 students being off task to 20 or 30 students being off task. While, the teacher may not have caused the original minor disruption, the teacher can certainly be blamed for the other 20 to 30 kids being off task.

So what’s a teacher to do?

The key to handling these minor classroom management problems is to make sure the lesson itself does not stop.

Many experts call this the “Law of Least Intervention”.

The basic concept is simple…the teacher uses a series of steps that require the least amount of teacher time and the least amount of disruption to the lesson. The teacher starts with the first step requiring the very least intervention and if that doesn’t work quickly moves up the ladder to the next step which requires slightly more intervention and so on.

By using this approach the teacher can maintain a positive learning environment while at the same time maximize time on task. And, as I have stated time and time again, when students are on task they are much less likely to disrupt the class.

Remember, the intervention should take the least amount of time…the least amount of teacher effort…create the least unpleasant feeling for both teacher and student…and have the least disruption to the lesson.

E-education –A Platform of learning for present scenario

Introduction

Information is the lifeline of the digital age and 21st century is shaping itself in the Knowledge Economy at a breath-taking pace. People now have the power to learn on their own time and at their pace. e-Learning technologies allow for the real-time performance, thus enabling individuals to spend time on their deficiencies rather than spending time on areas that they have mastered already.

1.The advancement of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has allowed teachers and lecturers worldwide to test the power and capability of the technology to meet the demand of the new generation in teaching and learning approach. The development of the user-friendly computer networks, internet, multimedia, on-line instruction, satellite and other high-end ICT peripherals have enhanced the usage of this technology in education. Education in the future will exist in different format and technology will transform and dictate the format.

2. The technology in higher education gives greater impact on the teaching and learning process. It demands for a change in the mindset of the students, lecturers and administrators of the university. E-learning could customize the academic programs based on the demands and the geographical constraint of the students.

Objective

The ultimate development objective is to bridge the digital divide, in terms of knowledge and opportunities, among communities in Malaysia through the provision of tools and training required to effectively utilize educational and development-related information to participate in the K-economy for social and economic betterment.

E-learning objectives include the following:
• To reduce the need for classroom training
• To track employee progress
• To track training effectiveness (or absorption)
• To link training with Knowledge Management
• To reduce time away from the job
• To improve job performance
• To support business objectives
• To make learning available anytime, anywhere

Aspects

When computer and communications technologies are combined, the result is information technology, or “infotech”. Information Technology (IT) is a general term that describes any technology that helps to produce, manipulate, store, communicate, and/or disseminate information.

The paper reviews and extends different aspects of Information Technology in education.

The different aspects of information technology can be divided into four as follows:

1. Learning about information technology

Learning about information technology, which is basically programming; software and its applications as well as machinery structure.

2. Learning with the aid of information technology

Learning with the aid of information technology which refers to a further aid to the learning process, using Internet, a CD-ROM encyclopedia, a graphics calculator, or sensors for collecting data; in all such cases the computer is used as s support or a resource, but does not provide the teaching modality.

3. Learning by means of information technology includes both Computer Aided Learning (CAL) and Computer Managed Learning(CML)

Learning by means of information technology includes both Computer Aided Learning (CAL) such as science and geography simulations and computer based modeling; and Computer Managed Learning (CML) referring to computer based programme management of a pupil’s learning progress through a particular course.

4. Information Technology as an aid to school management.

Information technology as an aid to school management, refers to the use of IT for carrying out tasks related to the school management and to store information related to the students learning progress.

Latest Technologies in e-Learning Education:

New computing devices, faster networks, and enhanced digital imaging techniques are expected to drive your future. Many of these new technologies are closer than you might realize. New technologies are expected to revolutionize the way people learn. Listed below are some new technologies in the
field of education.

1. Portable Computing Devices

Handheld devices and laptops are likely to be the mainstay of computer use in education. According to a latest report from market research company IDC, public school districts in the United States are expected to spend $9.5 billion on information technology by the 2005–2006 academic year.

It seems certain that ultimately all students will have some type of personal computing device. Institutions in all probability will accelerate this revolution by providing electronic versions of textbooks on their Web sites. With a couple of taps on their screens, students will use fast wireless networks to download content to their portable computing devices.

2. Wireless Technology

At the regional and local levels, the use of wireless technology is exploding. A recent wireless technology development is the emergence of equipment for the 802.11a wireless standard. This new standard for data transmission allows wireless networks to perform better, stronger, and faster and up to five times as fast as 802.11b-based systems. With the help of this increase in throughput, wireless LANs will become an acceptable conduit for applications such as video and streaming media. For heavy data transportation, high-performance computer networks will continue to expand. These networks are expected to be the future of educational networking and will bring fast connections to regional hubs and nodes.

3. Tele-Immersion and Three-Dimensional Imaging

While most users watch jerky video and listen to stuttering audio, Internet2 users have the benefit of true tele-immersion: the ability to be immersed in a realistic environment with crystal-clear video and digital stereo sound. Tele-immersion allows users at diverse geographical locations to collaborate in real time in a shared, simulated, hybrid environment as if they were in the same physical space. These new tele-immersion atmospheres are created with display types, which are like entire rooms that immerse the viewer in three-dimensional virtual environments.

4. Multimedia Projectors

Multimedia projectors are getting smaller, lighter, and much brighter. Most manufacturers have launched new projectors into the categories of “ultraportable” (units between 6 and 12 pounds), “microportable” (units that are under 6 pounds), and “mini-projectors” (units that weigh less than 4 pounds). The future will certainly offer units that are brighter and lighter. By the beginning of 2004, we might see units breaking the 2-pound barrier, and average lumen ratings will be around 2000.

5. Flatter Display

Most of the new computers being purchased for learning are generally equipped with LCD displays. Of late, LCD displays have finally cracked the 30-inch barrier and are moving toward 40 inches and above. Most of the Japanese and Korean manufacturers are ramping up production of flat-screen plasma displays in sizes ranging from 32 to 61 inches.

By the end of the year 2010, it’s quite likely that learners will carry around a very thin computing device that can access data quickly and efficiently from multiple sources. Just try to imagine the possibilities: video, voice, and data on demand; interactive communication with peers and teachers; and no more heavy books to carry around.

Development:

A number of factors should be kept in mind when designing a meaningful learning environment; many of them fall into six dimensions:

1. Pedagogical Dimension.

The pedagogical dimension addresses issues concerning content analysis, audience analysis, goal analysis, medium analysis, design approach, organization, and instructional methods and strategies. Various eLearning methods and strategies include: presentation, demonstration, drill and practice, tutorials, games, story telling, simulations, role-playing, discussion, interaction, modeling, facilitation, collaboration, debate, field trips, apprenticeships, case studies, generative development, and motivation.

2. Technological Dimension.

The technological dimension examines the issues related to technology infrastructure in eLearning environments. This includes infrastructure planning (e.g., technology plan, standards, metadata, learning objects, etc.) and hardware and software needs (e.g., LMS, LCMS, etc.).

3. Interface Design Dimension.

This refers to the overall look and feel of eLearning programs. The interface design dimension encompasses page and site design, content design, navigation, usability testing, and accessibility.

4. Evaluation Dimension.

This includes both assessment of learners and evaluation of the instruction and learning environment.

5. Management Dimension.

This refers to the maintenance of the learning environment and distribution of information.

6. Resource Support Dimension.

This examines the online support (e.g., instructional/counseling support, technical support, career counseling services, other online support services) and resources (i.e., both online and offline) required to foster meaningful learning environments.

The purpose of these six dimensions is to help designers think through every aspect of what they are doing during various steps of the eLearning design process. As the scope of eLearning design expands, design projects change from one-person operations to complex team efforts. The eLearning structure should ensure that none of these important factors are omitted from the design of eLearning, whatever its scope or complexity.

One may find that designing open, flexible, and distributed eLearning systems for globally diverse learners is challenging; however, as more and more institutions offer eLearning to learners worldwide, designers will become more knowledgeable about what works and what does not. Organizations should try their best to accommodate the needs of diverse learners by asking as many critical questions as possible during the planning period of eLearning design. The number and types of questions may vary based on each unique eLearning system. By exploring more and more critical eLearning issues, one can create meaningful and supportive learning environments for learners.

4C’s of e-Learning Success

While the dawn of Internet technology made it a viable educational alternative, electronic learning can never truly prosper without paying careful attention to the following “4 C’s”:

• A Culture of learning;
• Champions who will lead e-Learning efforts;
• Communications that position eLearning’s value; and
• Attractive Compensation scheme for people to accept the eLearning culture

These 4C’s are broadly described as follows:

Culture – building winning strategies that work

Focus at the enterprise level.
New cultures can be successfully adapted when a sufficient critical mass of people wanting that particular change to happen exists. Trying to work those cultural issues group by group can only prove frustrating and failure-prone. In the event that the training and development community within the organization is fragmented, try to bring unity to the function. Otherwise, not enough clout will exist to change much of anything. A learning management system like Excelearn can assist in this endeavor.

Incorporate learning directly into the work environment.
As far as possible, make eLearning a part of everyone’s daily work activities. A simple way to begin doing this is to take time out of the daily schedule to share new insights or problems.

Resources should be easily accessible.
This means placing main eLearning access points on the intranet pages people visit most often. While this may create some initial fears about cost and security, the advantages that result often more than compensate for the risk.

Champions – helping senior managers & early users

Teach executives.
Give your employees some short, business-oriented eLearning publications that address their chief concerns. Try to offer them benchmarking data that indicates the effectiveness of eLearning. Suggest to your employees a business conference where they can talk to their peers and experts about eLearning.

Pay no attention to the disbelievers.
Never waste your time trying to sell eLearning to those who are resistant to it. Their inability to adapt to eLearning methodologies could be based on good intentions, genuine strategic disagreements, or personal issues such as fear of losing power. Many people come around when they witness that some benefits are resulting from the eLearning process. A custom eLearning development program can illuminate these results more quickly and vividly.

Communication – conveying eLearning needs effectively

Communicate value from the top order.
Always make sure your sponsors are involved in the communication process. If you’ve built management ownership into your agreement, getting them to spread your message to others should be easy. Communication from the top also lends trustworthiness to your efforts to institute an eLearning culture.

Build support with coaches first.
Design a separate communication strategy for front-line managers, as their support is vital if workplace learning is to be successful. Commence your work with them early, before the deployment of your eLearning initiatives, since it will definitely take some time to win them over.

Build and promote an initial win.
Position your communications around best practices and solid examples of what eLearning can accomplish. Highlight what you have already achieved, even if it’s a small win, Tout your eLearning successes with endorsements and testimonials of the resulting benefits and impact on senior managers and learners, if possible.

Compensation – appraisal on eLearning progress

What will I achieve from this?

This is likely to be the first question most of the employees in any organization will ask themselves. Top management has to deal with the incentives issue if they hope to encourage their employees to adopt the new culture readily. If management can effectively relate the eLearning effort to the performance appraisal, workers will see this as directly affecting their own bottom lines: in the form of bonuses, raises and promotional prospects within the organization.

Make everyone aware of the consequences.

The managing committee should clearly spell out the positive consequences of adopting such cultural changes to their employees. Alternatively, the negative consequences should be implied to those who are unwilling to adopt the new culture. Whichever of these two consequential approaches is employed, management must take up fair measurement criteria to track the progress of their employees’ job performance.

Conclusion:

This paper was written to add voice to the growing awareness of the tidal wave of opinion on technological learning tools. Furthermore, e-Learning is gaining the attention of industry and the education sectors alike. In the meantime, the following questions are worth asking:

How long should the scoping process for e-Learning last?

How long before there is a common realization that the term e-Learning is nothing more than another piece of techno-jargon?

How long before there is a realization that the Web-based learning context involves as many components outside the current techno-idiosyncratic framework, as within information technology – that knows no bounds, and truly extends the learning journey through time and space?

Midgley’s ideologies about social development and their relevance to individuals’ social welfare

Social development is also used to mean the bundle of technological, subsistence,  organizational, and cultural accomplishments through which people feed, clothe, house, and reproduce themselves, explain the world around them, resolve disputes within their communities, extend their power at the expense of other communities, and defend themselves against others’ attempts to extend power (Morris 2010)

Social development welfare is an integrated intervention including therapy, organizational change, community development, social education and social action that seeks to empower and to promote the wellbeing and social functioning of individuals, families, communities and society at large by fostering sustainable growth, change and progress. (Kleijn, 2004)

Numerous models have been formulated to describe development. Generally, these start off with a state of not-yet development or non-development, and then go on to contrast this with a second state: some kind of plan or blueprint for development. As a result, the process of development is equated with a series of completed stages. Like having to climb the rungs of a ladder, one moves up and up in order to become more and more developed. The associated catching-up processes are then frequently described with phase models. In contrast to such goal-directed perspectives on development with their links to modernization theory, social development pursues an alternative approach focusing on the empowerment and autonomy of actors, and also taking account of the structural obstacles that confront them as they shape their daily lives in the sense of learning to develop their selves. This means that development is always conceived within a twin framework of self- and other-development. Social development represents a holistic approach that is non-static and process-oriented. (Reutlinger C, Homfeldt HG 2009)

According to Midgley J (1995), of social development is a process of planned social change designed to promote the wellbeing of the population as a whole in conjunction with a dynamic process economic development. He also adds that social development is an approach that offers an effective response to current social problems. The definition focuses at promoting people’s welfare can be elucidated as an enabling perspective, because it focuses attention on the potentials for action without forgetting the structural constraints to which actors are subject. Midgley J (1995) has had a decisive impact on the international discussion on social development. He conceives it as a “process of planned social change designed to promote the well-being of the population as a whole in conjunction with a dynamic process of economic development”.

He further highlights the key concepts of social development including;

  • It is linked to economic development
  • It has an interdisciplinary focus which draws on insights of various services
  • It invokes a sense of process where the notion of growth and change is explicit
  • It is progressive in nature
  • It is interventionist in that advocates believe that organized efforts are needed to bring about improvements in social welfare
  • The goals are fostered through various strategies
  • It is inclusive or universalistic in scope as it is concerned with the population as a whole and
  • Its goal is the promotion of social welfare

Looking at the link between social development and social welfare, Midgley adds that it is possible today to identify 3 institutionalized approaches to promoting social welfare and they include

  • Social philanthropy which relies on private donations, voluntary efforts and non profit organizations to meet the needs, solve problems and create opportunities
  • Social work which relies on professional personnel to foster welfare goal by working with individuals, groups and communities
  • Social administration that relies on government intervention through a variety of statutory social services

We can clearly say that all these approaches for promoting peoples welfare have been widely adopted throughout the world.

Adding on that is Kleijn, (2004) that the goal of development social welfare is a human, peaceful, just and caring society which will uphold welfare rights, facilitate the meeting of basic needs, release peoples’ creative energies, help them achieve their aspirations, build human capacity and self reliance and participate full in all spheres of social, economic and political life all that is intended to produce a social well-being that makes people capable of acting and making their own decisions in the broadest sense.

Looking at the concept of social development, Reutlinger C, Homfeldt HG (2009) concludes that the strengths of social development lie in the fact that its intervention strategies address the macro-, meso-, and micro levels. This means that it draws local communities into its strategy packages just as much as governments and international organizations.

As has been indicated from the above discussion, and according to Midgley (1995), social development in linked to economic development. Social development can’t take place without economic development and economic development is meaningless unless it is accompanied by improvements in social welfare for the population.

From Midgley’s ideas, we can also note that social development does not deal with individual either by providing them with goods or services or by treating them or rehabilitating the, instead it focuses on the community or society and on wider social processes and structure. They idea on the nature of social development according to Midgley is that it is dynamic involving the process of growth and change.

There have been however some challenges and weakness as well as criticisms in the ideas that were portrayed by Midgley about the whole concept of social development in relation to individuals’ welfare.

Looking at his concept of social planning, there has been absence of defined policies and programs in the sociological literature that has hampered the popularization of social development in sociological circles. Although the social workers have attempted to promote social development perspective, many have defined social development in a highly abstract and idealized way provide few specific proposals for action. Although social workers are interested in social development and have been involved in social development endeavors in the past, renewed efforts need to be made to define a unique social work approach to social development.

Despite the challenges, weaknesses and criticisms of Midgley’s ideas, they have widely worked worldwide and they have helped to improve individuals’ welfare with the focus to economic development and the communities where they live.

Back to “Mythstakes” of Technology Planning in the Future Classroom

Introduction

Myths around educational technologies are to be found in any higher education institution.  These myths are perpetuated among administrators, academic staff and students.

The incorporation of educational technologies requires a strategic plan that envisions educational technology as integral to curriculum development.  In many aspects educational technologies are underutilised and need to become better integrated with the curriculum if students are to be better prepared for the workplace.  All higher education institutions do have a strategic plan, or maybe, should have a strategic plan, for technology integration, but to which degree are the administrators incorporating the academic staff in the planning and strategizing phases?

Lecturers are the key to effective incorporation of educational technologies, not support services like the IT department and development services, although all these parties play a vital and irreplaceable role in the whole planning process.  There is concern over the lecturers’ involvement because of all the myths that are perpetuated among these staff members.

The great promise of educational technology is that it can improve student achievement, motivation, critical thinking and cooperation, but lecturers need to improve their own educational technology literacy levels and need to learn how to adapt their classroom teaching styles and extend their instructional strategies to include greater use of educational technologies.

Educational technology is not an end in itself.  The high costs of technology require a justification for technology planning that is visionary and comprehensive.  A successful educational technology plan must also focus on improving learning and communication.  This necessitates the continuous allocation of resources to equipment and software upgrades; a commitment to ongoing lecturer training by the Instructional Designers and Curriculum Practitioners; and a desire to provide access to global resources.

Unfortunately, because of the complexity of technology and the rapid changes, the use of educational technology can be misguided by myths fostered by a lack of knowledge.  Has the institution’s development and support services made the academic staff knowledgeable about technology integration in the university classroom?

Dichotomies, Advantages and Barriers

Research exposes some of these myths, but more importantly, points back to the fact that lecturers and students have myth busting attitudes.  All of these myths can create potential dichotomies between lecturers and students, lecturers and the higher education institution, lectures and the higher educations’ support services, and between educational technology and curriculum.

These myths alert one to the risks of the use of educational technology in student success, but potentially also undermine a student-centred focus.  A student-centred and learning-centred perspective can bust some of these myths and create an attitude of going back to the future in the face of barriers to learning in higher education institutions.  It is best to investigate these myths under the headings of technology planning, professional development, and technology utilisation.

Technology planning

Some higher education institutions have technology plans in place that provide the flexibility needed to respond to changing needs and equipment.  Others have plans that are never used or their plans are so restrictive that they defeat their purpose.  The question that every higher education institution must ask is: “Is our technology plan flexible or is it restrictive that it defeats the purpose of educational technology integration?”

Myth 1: technology planning is useless because educational technology changes rapidly

The fact is that many plans fail because of a lack of strategic planning.  Higher education institutions might attempt to be too specific about hardware and fail to consider in depth how educational technologies can benefit teaching and learning.

Myth 2: the development and support staff (i.e. IT, ICT, Instructional Designers, Curriculum Practitioners) should design the technology plan

The fact is that technology by nature is complicated.  Increased specialisation among professionals forces them to cooperate and to plan under complex conditions.  Therefore, decision makers must rely on input from administrators, librarians, administrators, support staff, curriculum designers and practitioners, Instructional Designers and IT specialists.

Myth 3: higher education institutions should buy what the workplace is using

The fact is, given the rate at which technology changes, purchases made today are not what students will be using in the workplace in 1 or 5 years time. When planning and strategizing the powers to be mustn’t be overly concerned about what platform and software to purchase, but to rather ask the question: “How will educational technology be used and with what impact?”  If the priority is for students to learn more effectively subject-specific content, via educational technology, then software should be chosen that accomplishes that goal and equipment purchased that runs that software.

The technology planning committee should also consider the longevity of a type of software.  They should also consider the amount and type of technical support that is provided with equipment warranties.   More expensive, high-quality equipment that includes competent technical support and fast on-site repairs will save time and money over less expensive equipment that lacks the level of support.

Myth 4: educational technology means computers

The fact is that higher education institutions need to consider how to incorporate the many varied forms of educational technologies.  Various educational technologies are available to higher education institutions. Examples include audio CDs, data CDs and DVDs, bulletin boards, posters, photos, radio, PowerPoint slides, telephones, mobile phones and other mobile technologies, television, integrated Learning Management Systems, Internet, computer-based tutorials, computer-based and paper-based drills, role-play and simulations, word processing, spreadsheets, databases, email, social networks like Facebook and Twitter, Audio and Video Conferencing, voicemail, and screen capturing software like Camtasia, etc.

The focus must be on the information that educational technologies enable students and lecturers to access, and on the connections that will support that information’s flow.

Myth 5: do not invest a lot of money in computer labs because it will be obsolete shortly

The fact is, just because new hardware models and educational software arrive on the market weeks after equipment were ordered does not mean that a purchase cannot meet learning needs and accomplish desired objectives for years to come.  Educational needs should dictate the extent to which technology is replaced, and not the other way around.  Higher education institutions need to consider how they can repurpose older equipment.  There are ways of integrating the use of both old and new educational technologies.  The technology plan should include ways and means of utilizing both.

Myth 6: complete the technology plan, build computer labs, then reallocate the funds

The fact is that a good technology plan will consider that educational technology use may and will increase over time as lecturers and students become more comfortable with and knowledgeable about educational technology. The technology plan will also recognise that the ongoing use of educational technology necessitates upgrading hardware, software and skills, planning for repairs and maintenance, and investing in telecommunications access.  This is an absolute requirement of the information age.  To ensure funding for long-term maintenance and growth, the strategic plan must integrate the workplace needs with curriculum goals.  So, the funds should/must not be reallocated to other projects!  Are higher education institutions guilty of such practices?

Professional development

Lectures are the key to effective and efficient educational technology utilisation, and not so much the Instructional Designer or the curriculum practitioner, although they also play a very important role.  It is safe to say when educational technology is available it is frequently used with styles of teaching that fail to maximise its full potential.  This could be the result of inability, improper training, technophobia, or a lack of practice using alternative teaching strategies.  Therefore, adequate professional development is needed if educational technology is to help higher education institutions improve learning.

Myth 7: lecturers don’t take advantage of training opportunities

The fact is that some lecturers are technophobic, afraid to try to use educational technology with their students, due to a lack of exposure or to prior bad experiences.  To help overcome resistance, professional development efforts can start by concentrating on those areas that make the lecturers’ job easier, more efficient, or more effective and should address the needs and concerns of the lecturers and the students.

The timing of professional development activities, training opportunities and workshops should also be carefully coordinated.  Too frequently, there is a long time lag between training and the opportunity to use what was learned.  Equipment may be installed weeks after training is conducted, or vice versa.  Lecturers become discouraged by the delay.  This might be detrimental to a higher education institution’s effective use of educational technologies.

Furthermore, training needs vary among lecturers according to their skills and comfort levels.  Different training opportunities should be scheduled according to the different skills levels of the lecturers.  Higher education institutions should vary their training to lecturers in the use of educational technologies.

Realistic amounts of training need to be provided to achieve the desired results.  Research shows that 30 hours of training are needed to successfully use technology at a basic level.  For a lecturer to have a good operational knowledge of hardware and perform basic troubleshooting requires 45+ hours of training and 3 months of experience.  For a lecturer to actively develop entirely new learning techniques that utilize educational technology requires 80+ hours of training and 4 to 5 years of experience.  The question is, what are higher education institutions’ training schedules like?

Myth 8: lecturers are not using the educational technologies that are available

Sometimes, educational technology is purchased in response to a particular interest or need or to run a pilot project.  A small group of lecturers may be using the technologies frequently, and others are not aware of the extent to which it is being used or think it should receive widespread use.  Other lecturers, however, may perceive that its use is restricted.  This is exacerbated by housing the equipment in a limited-access area such as a science lab and to only include a limited number of lecturers in a pilot project.  Small-scale innovation attempts like these frequently fail because they lack a critical mass of people, funding, or equipment and the traditional system of rewards does not encourage adoption.  Few people initially adopt innovation.  The rate at which others adopt innovations depends on, amongst others, their perception of its relative advantage and complexity, their level of involvement in making decisions, and the nature of their professional and social systems.  Professional development efforts should consider these factors.

There are also other barriers that inhibit the adoption of educational technology in classrooms, e.g. the difficulty finding appropriate media or software, a shortage of time for preparation, unfamiliarity with hardware or software, inaccessibility of educational equipment, poor technical support, and the inability to quickly solve problems.  Also, equipment failures in class in front of students are embarrassing and a threat to a lecturer’s sense of competence and authority.

These can be overcome by providing professional development opportunities, by creating incentives to learn and use educational technology, and by recognizing that comfort and expertise come only with experience.  Does higher education institutions incentivise, and if so, how and to what degree?  Effective technology planning is needed to help turn scared lecturers into educational technology adopters.  Enthusiastic support staff, with a concern for change will communicate their expectations, advice and support lecturers, monitor their progress, and provide a source of motivation.

Myth 9: lecturers will change from knowledge experts to knowledge facilitators

In this myth students are self-directed in their search for knowledge – which assumes an unqualified love of knowledge and a great deal of self-motivation.  The fact is, we all know that this doesn’t really happen, and (most) students must be motivated and guided by their lecturers.

This myth also presumes that lecturers and students can readily accept different classroom and campus cultures.  Lecturers are normally viewed by students as both information experts and authority figures.  Changing their role to knowledge facilitators does not diminish their roles.  Instead, it adds the dimension of managing the labour of students who may be working at different speeds on different tasks.  The culture of these classrooms can also be more active, energetic, and noisy and may require greater flexibility in scheduling and assessment methods.  Professional development efforts must address these concerns.

Technology utilization

The desired outcome of technology planning is to impact learning in positive ways by investing in appropriate educational technology and effective professional development.  One determination of whether educational technology is used successfully or not depends on how equitably it provides access to information to all students and lecturers.  It is about how the educational technology gets used.  The ultimate determinant of success is not reaching some ratio of equipment to students but ensuring that knowledgeable lecturers are using technology efficiently and effectively to meet lecture goals and objectives.

Myth 10: although there is no technology plan, get computers in every classroom.

The fact is, getting computers and using them in teaching and instruction is not the same thing.  Without adequate professional development, or technical support staff these computers will be underutilised.

For instructional benefits to be realised clearly defined objectives must be established for how the hardware will be used and integrated with the curriculum.

Lecturers in general are not very knowledgeable about how to integrate any type of educational technology into their lessons, much less computers or software.  Coming up with imaginative, educationally inclusive ways for students and lecturers to use educational technology remains a difficult task for technology planning.

Myth 11:  lecturers will be replaced by computers

This myth ignores the culture of the classroom and doesn’t consider how lecturers meet important social and emotional needs for their students.  This myth stems from efforts in artificial intelligence that are applied to instruction.  Although highly advanced computer-based tutorials that use artificial intelligence technology are being designed and used that adapt to students’ individualised learning styles and needs, they are expensive and labour intensive to design.  It will still be some time before this technology is common in the classrooms and available for all levels and curriculum areas.  It is also doubtful they will be able to respond the way lecturers do to changes in the students’ readiness for learning and the social context of the classroom.

Understandably lecturers at higher education institutions are concerned about the role of technology in their classrooms, but it is unlikely that these technologies will ever replace them.  Technology planners must rather understand that these technologies are there to support the lecturers and that there must be a synergy between lecturers and the educational technologies in the classroom.  The lecturers must understand their students, the classroom setting, and the complexity of the campus environment and design their educational tasks accordingly and it is here where the Instructional Designers and other support staff play a vital role.

Myth 12: educational technology will transform education

The fact is that lecturers, students, and communities can transform education – educational technology merely provides some of the tools and processes that can support educational reform and create pressure for change.  Educational technology and media in the classroom do not benefit all students equally and does not result in across-the-board increases in achievement.  Educational technology, however, can help lecturers become more efficient and effective and can help improve student motivation and engagements with the learning process.

Myth 13: e-learning does not work

This myth has two points of view:  Firstly, IT and network support staff say e-learning does not work because the network  or IT is always slow or down because of limited bandwidth.

Secondly, teaching practice is hardly ever rewarded.  Lecturers do not bother to develop teaching skills utilising educational technologies and e-learning because teaching is not rewarded enough in higher education.  Lecturers believe that only research gets rewarded.  Isn’t it time higher education institutions and technology planning committees start thinking of rewarding staff members for using educational technology?

Conclusion

So what does the road into the future for educational technology at higher education institutions hold?

Higher education institutions mustn’t embark on a track that leads to nowhere, or a track that doesn’t make ends meet.  Institutions should seek out and bust any educational technology and e-learning myth that wrongfully creates dichotomies, and address any plausible educational technology and e-learning myth with research and actions, starting with technology planning.  Technology planning has to be more integrated, more flexible, and requires more research on newer educational technologies and literacy.

In higher education institutions there is a need for a focus on student-centred learning, and a focus on lecturer-friendly teaching – a holistic wellness focus – where best practice is celebrated and excellence for teaching is recognised and rewarded.

The Educational Value of Children’s Story Books

The ability to read is a tool that helps people succeed in life. Not only can the properly communicate

with other individuals, but they can transmute those reading skills into written ones. With the power to write comes the ability to create laws, craft poetry, inspire social change and more. All of these benefits can begin with story books designed for children.

Identifying Sounds and Words

At the most basic level, reading story books with children helps them learn how to properly pronounce sounds and words. At a young age, their minds absorb so much of what is around them and they do so without hesitation. Once they are in the classroom, they may begin to build some resistance to learning; however, at this point, their minds are open and willing to retain information. Eventually, they will likely begin to read the words on the page out loud to you, instead of the other way around.

Engaging with the Material

Even as children grow older and find themselves in the classroom, they may continue to race home to read their story books. While educational facilities are working to implement strategies that target the learning needs of all students, some still find their minds wandering. When you purchase story books for your children, you can select themes and tales in which they are interested. Even if they read the same story again and again, at least they are engaging with written material.

Applying the Skills Elsewhere

  1. Once children learn the basic words and sounds, their knowledge will begin to expand beyond the books that you have at home. Watch as your youngsters begin to apply what they have learned in the story books to other scenarios. They may begin by identifying words on signs and posters when you are out, and they may start to read traffic signs as you drive through town. When they attend school, they may have an advantage over other students in the class. Instead of struggling to learn what different letters mean, they can quickly move on to other reading material.

Inspiring Future Learning

Learning how to read early can help to instill a sense of confidence in children. When they believe they have the power to conquer this learning task, they may challenge themselves with even more difficult ones. The more they learn, the more they set themselves up for the future and different academic goals. Also, they may decide that they want to pursue a hobby or a career in the field of literature and writing.

Even if your children do not reap every single educational benefit of reading, they will have discovered that leaning can be combined with joy and entertainment.

I am a story writer and keep writing on various topics like Indian epics, mythology stories, cartoon characters, comic stories and more stories which are loved by children and adults. To read all the stories, visit Amar Chitra Katha website.

How Preschool Business Foster Satisfaction In Terms Of Social Responsibility and Money Making

Many people dream of being self-employed. People usually get tired of their corporate lives and wish to set up their own business. Preschool business is the best option to choose among sets up a new business. This business is gradually getting more and more better response in India as preschool has become an important part of kid education. Due to the growth of the Indian education sector, people have realized the importance of preschool education and also realized the potential of preschool franchise business. It becomes a great business for investing money, which gives you fruitful results.

Becoming the owner of a preschool helps you to become independent as well as provide satisfaction as being the one who is building the future of the country.  Education is one of those industries that people invest in, no matter what the economic climate. Families invest more heavily in educating their children because they want their kids to have better opportunities and the best possible education and preschool is the first step in this process.

The learning capabilities of humans continue for the rest of their lives but not at the intensity that is demonstrated in the preschool years. Early childhood learning provides a solid foundation in the later success in the school system therefore it plays an important role in the child’s education.

With the appearance of so many different names in the preschool franchise sector, the quality of preschool education in our country has improved. The franchise model has contributed a lot towards the growth and development of the education sector in India.

The concept of Nursery School Franchise In India is growing at a fast pace. A preschool franchise gives the name of their well-existing brand to the new school, which helps you manifold such as you can be assured of getting good admissions as the goodwill of parent school will attract more parents. It is unquestionably a great business idea to look out for Franchise For Play School when makeup mind to invest in nursery school. It is the wisest business decision as it yields higher profits on low investment. Due to ever increasing demand of education sector, one can reap huge profit, but also satisfaction that is fulfilling your social responsibility in shaping the young minds.

Hence, it is said that educating little kids is a profitable as well as satisfying investment.  Anyone who is enthusiastic to work with kids has the franchise model as the best option to make him a good entrepreneur.